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American Indian (First Nations)

"Common to all these types is the anthropomorphic character of their conception of God. In general, only individuals of exceptional endowments, and exceptionally high-minded communities, rise to any considerable extent above this level. But there is a third stage of religious experience which belongs to all of them, even though it is rarely found in a pure form: I shall call it cosmic religious feeling. It is very difficult to elucidate this feeling to anyone who is entirely without it, especially as there is no anthropomorphic conception of God corresponding to it. The individual feels the futility of human desires and aims and the sublimity and marvelous order which reveal themselves both in nature and in the world of thought. Individual existence impresses him as a sort of prison and he wants to experience the universe as a single significant whole."
- Albert Einstein, Religion and Science

“Therefore a nature person is considered to be extremely important. That person knows the book of nature in such a way that they have the key to the evolution of our consciousness. The jungle is itself a decipherable book. When you look at nature it appears to be chaos, but you can perceive patterns in the chaos. If you only see chaos in nature it is a reflection of the chaos inside yourself. There is a very perfect order in nature. Understanding this kind of order is understanding the cosmic phenomenon. This is why, more often than not, indigenous people want to keep nature the way it is. Modification of it deletes an opportunity to decipher a very potent hieroglyphics. Perhaps this is why the modern world looks upon the indigenous as people who are not evolved, people who are primitive. In this context primitive is a reductionist word which does not depict the reality as it is, only the importance of being called primitive.”
- Malidoma Somé, Healing Wisdom of Africa

         I had previously never given any thought to the American Indian medicine wheel. I mistakenly thought it was some knickknack that people hung on their wall that only had significance to people in another place in time. Now I know that it also represents human cognition. Aboriginal peoples throughout time have noticed that different individuals have an affinity for different features of their environment. These features might include animals, plants, rocks, seasons, whether patterns, scenery, etc. I for example have always found frogs very interesting. Their dramatic stages of metamorphosis, their non-threatening and resigned nature, their predilection for eating bugs that annoy us and the simple fact they are cute all appeal to me. You could say I saw much of my own personality in this animal. Well it should come as no surprise that what I might find appealing about a frog a person with a different personality would find totally uninteresting. They may find the stealth, cunning and elusiveness of a fox more appealing. Recognition of the patterns and qualities of a person’s environment do and always have correlated with each individual’s different cognitive functional preference. Just like my graphics for the different functions differ as an INTP from those of an INTJ because of the different 'attitudes' for each function, I can understand why the animal symbols found in different medicine wheels are not always consistent.

http://www.kstrom.net/isk/stars/starkno5.html    Prior to the arrival of Europeans a few centuries ago there were apparently about 20,000 stone or “medicine wheels” in North America. They are often located in areas that people found to have some “spiritual” significance. While I personally prefer to approach the meaning of spiritual as that which refers to consciousness and the mind, I should also point out the current scientific research in the field of consciousness involves electromagnetic fields and quantum physics. Some people claim certain places contain a 'spiritual' energy or presence.  While I can’t explain the physics behind this claim I believe they are correct. I’m not sure if any “scientist” has attempted to determine the validity of these claims but if they had it’s likely we still don’t have the technology to objectively detect this form of energy. Nevertheless I believe people are able to “subjectively” experience it. If you think this sounds silly I would ask you to look in the sky and point out the UHF, VHF, and cellular signals coursing through the air. Just because you cannot detect them with your eyes does that mean they don’t exist? You can't see infrared light but you can feel it as heat.  Consider that there are no supernatural forces, there are only natural forces we have yet to fully comprehend.

Royal Astronomical Society
20 March 2002
Their results show that the universe is full of dark energy, completely consistent with the earlier supernovae results. "It seems that Einstein did not make a blunder after all -- dark energy appears to exist and to dominate over more conventional types of matter," Efstathiou said. "An explanation of the dark energy may involve String Theory, extra dimensions or even what happened before the Big Bang. At present nobody knows. The ball is now firmly in the theorists court."

    Here is some recently released evidence supporting the argument that people who are more in tune with their own subjective sensations and the environment around them are more aware of those natural forces that have historically eluded more objective materialist measurement and explanation.  I contend those individuals most likely to notice such sensations would be those with more efficient (and consequently more developed) Sensing and Feeling cortical function.  Unfortunately because of differentiation and localization of cortical language structures this same group would also be less capable of articulating the experience using language that would satisfy those with a preference for objective descriptions.

Eerie feeling? Maybe you're just hearing things
September 18, 2003 edition
Drs. Bedard and Georges also point out that winds blowing over mountain ranges can generate infrasounds that last for days. They speculate that increases in suicides reported from the Alps and the western United States "may be due to some as yet unknown biological response" to such infrasound events. The British experiments, reported during the recent meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science in Manchester, England, may shed light on this.

Soundless Music Shown to Produce Weird Sensations
Thu, Sep 18, 2003
MANCHESTER, England (Reuters) - Mysteriously snuffed out candles, weird sensations and shivers down the spine may not be due to the presence of ghosts in haunted houses but to very low frequency sound that is inaudible to humans.

British scientists have shown in a controlled experiment that the extreme bass sound known as infrasound produces a range of bizarre effects in people including anxiety, extreme sorrow and chills -- supporting popular suggestions of a link between infrasound and strange sensations.

"Normally you can't hear it," Dr Richard Lord, an acoustic scientist at the National Physical Laboratory in England who worked on the project, said Monday.

Lord and his colleagues, who produced infrasound with a seven meter (yard) pipe and tested its impact on 750 people at a concert, said infrasound is also generated by natural phenomena.

"Some scientists have suggested that this level of sound may be present at some allegedly haunted sites and so cause people to have odd sensations that they attribute to a ghost -- our findings support these ideas," said Professor Richard Wiseman, a psychologist at the University of Hertfordshire in southern England.



    On this page http://www.kstrom.net/isk/stars/starkno8.html is an article on stone wheels as analog star computers. The Aztecs also had a similar and very accurate astronomical calendar. These calendars are more than 2000 years old. As mentioned previously enlightenment or “neural alignment” allows a person greater clarity in understanding their world. It’s no accident that there is a correlation with our minds and the reality beyond the earth. We are indeed made of the same stuff “energy” as stars. In fact everything including matter is simply a particular state of energy.

    American Indians practice(d) ceremonies where they walk the medicine wheel and contemplate the concepts that each of the stones represents. This is comparable to Hindu and Buddhist use of Mandalas.  Because the stones represent concepts that correspond with their environment by placing them in the appropriate locations and meditating on them they are able to find the truths of their environment and obtain enlightenment, although from what I've heard it is usually referred to as 'healing'. Because the integration of knowledge combined subconscious memories of their natural environment this made them extremely knowledgeable about the animals, plants, people and weather patterns.

    Prior to learning about the medicine wheel I had already conceived of a hands-on learning center and library dedicated to the same thing. I thought of it after spending some time with a toddler I believe to be ESTP. Acknowledging that different personalities have different preferences for acquiring information I thought it would be great to have a multimedia three dimensional environment for people to experience and learn about personality and cognition. When I last considered it, it would have been arranged in the following manner from out outside toward the center:

bulletA round building with a patio outdoors surrounding the whole building
bulletA glass wall surrounding the entire building so when indoors you could look outside
bulletThen a circular wall with openings with walls painted reflecting aspects of the patterns found in nature and divided by quadrant.
bulletThen next set of circular walls would be a library with content arranged by function and functional sets
bulletAn inner library with content that is functionally holistic.
bulletPerhaps the very center would be a holographic projection of the computer cognitive matrix I was designing. The content of the model would include content from the Internet, by language, culture, and planetary.

    Here is an interesting site that provides several additional relationships between people and a relationship with four types.  I found the “4 Races of Mankind” page particularly interesting because I believe it equates well with the MBTI arguments for "cultural types”.  A cultural type is the application of individual human personality type traits to the prevailing values and practices of a group.  e.g. United States could currently be considered as ESTJ and Japan as ISFJ.  (However, the founders of the United States I would consider more ENTJ.)

    I have enormous respect for wise and peaceful people.  For centuries many or most native Americans have more or less found a way to live harmoniously with other people and their environment. Despite being nearly exterminated by Europeans and having nearly everything precious to them bribed away or stolen, many maintain a profound respect for all people and the goodness that they know they capable of. They also know more about enlightenment cross culturally than any other group I’ve found. It was on an American Indian web site that I saw the reference to Stonehenge.

The Ten Indian Commandments (at archive.org)
Chief White Cloud

bulletRemain close to the Great Spirit
bulletShow great respect for all your fellow beings
bulletGive assistance and kindness wherever needed
bulletBe truthful and honest at all times
bulletDo what you know to be right
bulletLook after the well being of mind and body
bulletTreat the Earth and all that dwell thereon with respect
bulletTake full responsibility for your actions
bulletDedicate a share of your efforts to the greater good
bulletWork together for the benefit of all mankind

“The eye sees only what the mind is prepared to comprehend.”
- Henri Bergson

"We could not believe our eyes."
- Astronomer Thomas Ott on the surprising discovery of a star swinging around the very heart of the Milky Way.

"The voyage of discovery is not in seeking new landscapes but in having new eyes."
- Marcel Proust

    The author of the following web page titled “In the Beginning” appears to recognize that the 'creator' which is symbolized by the center stone (or empty space) in the great wheel is in fact the core of our galaxy which contains a supermassive black hole (the empty space I contend also represents the absence of diagonal neural connections in the brain).  For contemporary evidence and theory supporting this view please click here.

    From what I know and as far as I’ve researched the teachings of many Native Americans and many of their traditions are among the wisest on the planet.    Here also is an article that discusses native peoples awareness of concepts that relate directly to modern concepts of quantum physics and telepathy, QLAOT -- Quantum Linguistic Aspects of Telepathy

Non-space Time vs. Timing in Spacetime
“While for thousands of years our Western European cultures have gotten by just fine with daily and mathematical languages which treat Space and Time as separate, we couldn't notice until physics reunited them as 'spacetime' during this century that other cultures had never separated them to begin with. These Native American language/culture complexes are based on animacy and wholeness, as pointed out by Whorf and verified by Native Americans I've discussed this with -- and there is only integrated spacetime in their systems.”

"Common to all these types is the anthropomorphic character of their conception of God. In general, only individuals of exceptional endowments, and exceptionally high-minded communities, rise to any considerable extent above this level. But there is a third stage of religious experience which belongs to all of them, even though it is rarely found in a pure form: I shall call it cosmic religious feeling. It is very difficult to elucidate this feeling to anyone who is entirely without it, especially as there is no anthropomorphic conception of God corresponding to it. The individual feels the futility of human desires and aims and the sublimity and marvelous order which reveal themselves both in nature and in the world of thought. Individual existence impresses him as a sort of prison and he wants to experience the universe as a single significant whole."
- Albert Einstein, Religion and Science

In The Beginning In The Beginning
The first Stone of the Sun Bear Medicine Wheel is in honor of Creator, represents Creator, is Creator in the Wheel. In the Wheel building ceremony this Stone is placed first, with prayer and song, and in the very center of the space you have marked out for the Wheel.

Since Creator is all things, there is no particular totem or mineral for this position. The item for Creator does not need to be a Stone. Wheels have been built around an object sacred to the group, for example, a Bear skull; or a sacred Fire, Tree, or cluster of crystals.

I want to share this quotation from page 25 of Dancing With The Wheel by Sun Bear, Wabun Wind, and Crysalis Mulligan: "The Creator is the beginning of life and its ending, the Great Mystery within all things and around all things, the Universal Energy"............"In many Native languages the word for Creator......... "was a verb, indicating the movement, the activity, the motion, the pulsation of this sacred, never-ending force."

Chandra Finds Galaxy Growth Regulated by Big Black Holes
22 May 2003, By SPACE.com Staff
"These galaxies are revealing an energetic phase in which a supermassive black hole transfers considerable energy into the gas surrounding the galaxies," said Andrew Fabian, lead author of the study on 3C294, in a written statement. "This appears to be crucial in explaining the puzzling properties of present-day galaxies, especially those that group together in large clusters," he said. Fabian, a professor at Cambridge University, will publish his findings in an upcoming issue of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

The studies of both galaxies suggest a kind of a cosmic circle of galactic life. As a dense region of intergalactic gas cools, it forms several smaller galaxies that later merge to form a larger galaxy with a supermassive black hole at its core. Both galaxy and black hole continue to grow by absorbing other nearby galaxies.

Black holes: mothers of the Universe?
Cynthia Reynolds, January 13, 2000, EXN.ca is Discovery Channel Canada’s Website
"Black holes aren't exactly the celestial darlings of our universe. They're commonly thought of as giant space vacuums slowly and methodically sucking the universe dry. But these monsters of destruction may not be so monstrous after all. New research that identifies three new supermassive black holes - bringing the grand total so far to 20 - adds credence to the theory that massive black holes are also intricately related to the creation and evolution of galaxies. Maybe, without black holes, we wouldn't even be here."

Black hole survey sheds light on galaxy formation
“Though this secret relationship between a black hole and its host galaxy has been suspected for the past several years, it is bolstered by the Hubble discovery of 10 more supermassive black holes in galaxy centers, raising the total to more than 30 black holes now available for study. "For the first time we can put strong constraints on the relationship between galaxy formation and black hole formation and growth," says Kormendy.”

Genesis 2
1 Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them.
2 And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made; and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made.

Final ‘Proof’ Provided for Milky Way’s Central Black Hole
Thu Oct 17, 2002
Surprising observations of a star swiftly orbiting the cloudy heart of the Milky Way Galaxy have verified with near certainty the existence of a central black hole, a theoretical object that still eludes direct detection.

Astronomers watched the star for a decade, tracking two-thirds of its path around the galactic center. No object has ever before been seen so close to the center of any galaxy, nor has any other object previously been observed making more than a small fraction of its orbital trek around a galaxy.

"Our work proves that there is indeed a supermassive black hole in our own galaxy," said Rainer Schoedel, a PhD student at the Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) in Germany.

While it’s not clear why the Milky Way’s black hole is relatively quiet, astronomers have long suspected that a black hole is a black hole, and that in a general sense what’s observed in the Milky Way can be applied to the more massive objects seen elsewhere. The Milky Way’s black hole may be simply taking a culinary break after billions of years of high consumption.

The New History of Black Holes: 'Co-evolution' Dramatically Alters Dark Reputation
By Robert Roy Britt, 28 January 2003
Black holes suffer a bad rap. Indicted by the press as gravity monsters, labeled highly secretive by astronomers, and long considered in theoretical circles as mere endpoints of cosmic evolution, these unseen objects are depicted as mysterious drains of destruction and death.

So it may seem odd to reconsider them as indispensable forces of creation.

Yet this is the bright new picture of black holes and their role in the evolution of the universe. Interviews with more than a half dozen experts presently involved in rewriting the slippery history of these elusive objects reveals black holes as galactic sculptors.

Black Holes Tied to Galaxy Growth, Study Says
Stefan Lovgren
for National Geographic News
April 6, 2005
By peering into the deep belly of the universe, scientists have found that massive black holes are growing simultaneously with the galaxies in which they are situated.

Using powerful x-ray technology, astronomers surveyed distant galaxies more than ten billion light-years away. They found that the black hole in the center of each galaxy appears to be growing continuously throughout a burst of star formation.

The observations confirm a theory that the total mass of the stars in a galaxy corresponds to the mass of the black hole. The findings suggest that black holes are pivotal to the formation of galaxies and the structure of the universe.

special relativity: Yahoo! Reference: American Heritage® Dictionary
NOUN: The physical theory of space and time developed by Albert Einstein, based on the postulates that all the laws of physics are equally valid in all frames of reference moving at a uniform velocity and that the speed of light from a uniformly moving source is always the same, regardless of how fast or slow the source or its observer is moving. The theory has as consequences the relativistic mass increase of rapidly moving objects, the Lorentz-Fitzgerald contraction, time dilatation, and the principle of mass-energy equivalence.

2 Peter 3:7-9 :: King James Version (KJV)
7 But the heavens and the earth, which are now, by the same word are kept in store, reserved unto fire against the day of judgment and perdition of ungodly men.
8 But, beloved, be not ignorant of this one thing, that one day is with the Lord as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day.
9 The Lord is not slack concerning his promise, as some men count slackness; but is longsuffering to us-ward, not willing that any should perish, but that all should come to repentance.

"The important thing is not to stop questioning. Curiosity has its own reason for existing. One cannot help but be in awe when he contemplates the mysteries of eternity, of life, of the marvelous structure of reality. It is enough if one tries merely to comprehend a little of this mystery every day. Never lose a holy curiosity." "What I see in Nature is a magnificent structure that we can comprehend only very imperfectly, and that must fill a thinking person with a feeling of "humility." This is a genuinely religious feeling that has nothing to do with mysticism"
- Albert Einstein, What I Believe, 1930

In The Beginning
"The Creator is the beginning of life and its ending, the Great Mystery within all things and around all things, the Universal Energy"............"In many Native languages the word for Creator......... "was a verb, indicating the movement, the activity, the motion, the pulsation of this sacred, never-ending force."

The Prayer To Our 'Father'
"The Aramaic Language has (like the Hebrew and Arabic) different levels of meaning. The words are organized and defined by a poetical system where different meanings of every word are possible."
(in the original Aramaic)
"Oh Thou, from whom the breath of life comes,
who fills all realms of sound, light and vibration.
Nethkâdasch schmach
May Your light be experienced in my utmost holiest.
Têtê malkuthach.
Your Heavenly Domain approaches.
Nehwê tzevjânach aikâna d'bwaschmâja af b'arha.
Let Your will come true - in the universe (all that vibrates)
just as on earth (that is material and dense).
Hawvlân lachma d'sûnkanân jaomâna.
Give us bread (understanding, assistance) for our daily need,

Advanced physics, accelerated for mass consumption
Diana Steele
Trying to untangle some of the more esoteric concepts of modern physics might tie most people up in knots, but Columbia's Brian Greene has string theory wrapped around his finger. Greene's new book, The Elegant Universe (NY: Norton, 1999), succeeds in explaining string theory in accessible language, visualizing the microscopic world in terms of garden hoses and violins. His patient eloquence brings string theory within range of even the most phobic of math- and physics-phobes.
At its most basic, string theory posits that the fundamental ingredients in matter are vibrating loops resembling unimaginably tiny, taut rubber bands. "If you take anything at all, and just keep slicing it into smaller and smaller pieces," says Greene, "the theory suggests that the smallest things that you will ultimately come upon are these strings." Envisioning the fundamental bits of matter as tiny strings rather than point-like particles gives scientists the theoretical framework to probe the physical properties of things like black holes. The theory has begun to sew together our fragmented understanding of the universe.

The vibration patterns of the strings, like the vibrations of violin strings, give rise to slightly more familiar fundamental particles such as quarks and gluons. These, in turn, are the constituents of protons, neutrons, and electrons, which make up atoms and molecules.

String theory suggests that as many as nine or 10 spatial dimensions, plus time, may exist, for a total of 10 or 11 spacetime dimensions. Most of them are tiny and curled up, so small we may never be able to perceive them. It's the complex patterns of vibrations throughout these 10 or 11 dimensions that give rise to the rich family of particles scientists can detect experimentally.

"In the beginning of all things wisdom and knowledge were with the animals, for Tirawa, the One Above, did not speak directly to man. He sent certain animals to tell men that he showed himself through the beasts, and that from them, and from the stars and the sun and the moon should man learn .... all things tell of Tirawa."
- Eagle Chief (Letakots-Lesa) (late 19th century): Pawnee

    Here is evidence of a positive and encouraging prophecy coming true.  While it's initially a few years old (1994) I was alerted to it on May 13, 2002 by CNN Headline News.  For more of "Tirawa" speaking through animals please see the following prophecy related to the Middle East conflict and peace.

"American Legend is made flesh" No longer mythical White Buffalo a beacon to Plains tribes...... Miracle, The Sacred White Buffalo,  Born August 20, 1994, The Heider Farm ~ Janesville, Wisconsin
from the Houston Chronicle, Sept. 24, 1994
“Miracle stands in her mother’s shadow, her champagne coat, ghostlike against the chocolate-colored herd. She is a mat of fuzz on a newborn frame. Yet Miracle is rarely among land-roving beasts. She is the mythical White Buffalo - symbol of hope, rebirth and unity for the Great Plains tribes.”

“Searching for Miracle will take you down long gravel path on the Heider family farm in south central Wisconsin. Three thousand pilgrims made the walk down the coarse stones earlier this month hoping to catch a glimpse of Miracle. Every day more come from all corners of the country. One man came from Ireland.”

“If all of this sounds a little crazy to you, consider this: The chance of a white buffalo being born makes your odds of winning the lottery look good, Miracles likelihood, according to the numbers from the National Buffalo Association, is somewhere in the range of 6 billion. Consider also that the only other documented white buffalo this century died in 1959. His name was Big Medicine. He lived for 36 years.

Now, there is Miracle, the infant calf born to a 1,100 -pound mother and now deceased father on Dave and Valerie Heider’s farm on the banks of the Rock River. She is a beacon for believers.”

"The arrival of the white buffalo is like the second coming of Christ, says Floyd Hand, a Sioux medicine man from Pine Ridge, S.D., who was one of the first to make the pilgrimage. It "will bring about purity of mind, body and spirit, and unify all nations, black, red, yellow, and white."

White Buffalo Woman -- Prayers for Peace are being answered
She told people to "...always remember that the two-leggeds and all other peoples who stand upon this Earth are sacred and should be treated as such... I am leaving now, but I shall look back upon you in every age, and at the end I shall return." When she left, she turned into a buffalo that changed into four different colors -- red, black, yellow and white, which represent the races of humanity. White Buffalo Woman said that one day she would return to "mend the hoop" and establish brotherhood between all races. According to the Lakota keeper of the sacred pipe, Chief Arvol
Looking Horse, "It was told the next time there is chaos and disparity, she would return again."

HOMELAND - The Legend of the White Buffalo Calf Woman
It was the young Indian woman the warrior had spoken of.

But in person, she was far more beautiful than words could tell. She was dressed in white buckskins and her long dark hair glowed like hot, liquid stone.

On her face, was a most peaceful countenance and her smile showered the people in warmth and happiness.

"I have something special for you," she whispered.

And then she opened her bundle and revealed a sacred pipe adorned with 12 eagle feathers.

The people stared in awe as she showed them how to pray with the pipe... and then she blessed the people.

She blessed the women saying, "it is the work of your hands and the fruit of your wombs that keep your people alive."

She looked upon the children, saying, "You are the greatest possession of any nation, you are the coming generations, the life of the people and the circle without end."

Then she turned to the men and said, "Offer prayers to the Wakantanka (Great Spirit) and love your children and women."

    And here are the pictures of the Buffalo as her fur changes color from white to black to red to yellow. She’s apparently brown now and if the prophecy is correct I suppose she should be changing white any day now.  Miracle's Life and Color Changes in Pictures: 1994 through 1997....  Well, now in Aug. 2003 comes an announcement that helps explain the significance of environmental influence on gene expression.  It seems to me this type of research may be important for understanding and explaining the discrepancy between the scientific evidence that all homo sapiens are more or less genetically identical with the superficial yet significant differences in our appearance (see Epigenetics)

Mother's diet changes pups' colour
Mouse study suggests mechanism for affect of maternal nutrition on infant health.
4 August 2003, Nature.com Article
The study is the first to find a clear mechanism for the effect of maternal nutrition on disease development in mammals without mutating the offspring's genes.

The implications for cloning, nutrition and disease research are huge, says Rob Waterland of the Duke University Medical Center in Durham, North Carolina, who took part in the study. "For decades, there has been research linking prenatal diet to diseases like diabetes, obesity and cancer but the explanation was missing," he says.

Waterland and his colleague Randy Jirtle worked with Agouti Yellow mice. Members of this strain have an extra piece of DNA in the Agouti gene, making them obese and yellow. When fed the vitamin B12, folic acid, choline and betaine before, during and after pregnancy, the animals gave birth to thin, brown pups. Control animals' offspring were fat and yellow.

The nutrients had silenced the Agouti gene, but had not altered its sequence, Waterland and Jirtle found. Molecules containing carbon and hydrogen had been attached to the gene. Cells often use this process, called DNA methylation, to switch genes on or off during development.

The Matrix is a system, Neo, and that system is our enemy. But when you are inside and look around, what do you see; businessmen, lawyers, teachers, carpenters. The minds of the very people we are trying to save. But until we do, these people are still a part of the system and that makes them our enemy.  You have to understand, most of these people are not ready to be unplugged.  And many of them are so inured, so hopelessly dependent on the system that they will fight to protect it.”
- Morpheus, The Matrix

    In order to help clarify the purpose behind the arrival of the White Buffalo I suggest focusing attention on the following claim, "It was told the next time there is chaos and disparity, she would return again."  I will briefly attempt to explain the advantageous psychological consequences of a hostile environment.  The majority of individuals in the world are born with a more extroverted personality meaning their self-identity is consequently comprised largely of external or environmental factors.  For example they are citizens of a particular government, they are a member of a particular religious order, they are the executive of a large corporation, etc.  These people typically (often eagerly) adopt and integrate the values, ethics and beliefs or these social organizations into their individual psyches.  If these organizations are corrupt then unfortunately these people typically embody and spread the corruption.

    The minority who are born with a more introverted personality develop their individual identity and consequently their own set of values early and often have great difficulty finding common ground with group oriented organizations.  Because there are so many social pressures to join/become part of one or more social groups, introverts usually do.  As mentioned in the Benziger articles Introversion/Extroversion is determined by the Reticular Activating System (RAS).  I believe the articles mention that in a hostile environment an individual's RAS may change (accelerate) consequently making them more introspective (introverted).  The individual will then begin reassessing their relationship to their environment.  If the social organizations and roles with which they were a part are viewed from their now individual perspective, then they are more likely to see flaws in the organization that negatively effects themselves or other individuals.

    Here are some related prophecies and supporting explanatory evidence that a transformative process is currently underway.

Technological singularity
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
In futurism, a technological singularity is a predicted point in the development of a civilization at which technological progress accelerates beyond the ability of present-day humans to fully comprehend or predict. This prognosis is based on statistical data showing the acceleration of various trends in the human civilisation... Since the term technological singularity refers both the the advance of technology and their impact on the human society, it can be also understood as a sociological singularity.

Koyaanisqatsi (from the Hopi language), n.
1. crazy life. 2. life in turmoil. 3. life out of balance.
4. life disintegrating. 5. a state of life that calls for another way of living

Matthew 24 (KJV)
3 And as he sat upon the mount of Olives, the disciples came unto him privately, saying, Tell us, when shall these things be? and what shall be the sign of thy coming, and of the end of the world?
7 For nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom: and there shall be famines, and pestilences, and earthquakes, in divers places.
8 All these are the beginning of sorrows.
10 And then shall many be offended, and shall betray one another, and shall hate one another.
12 And because iniquity shall abound, the love of many shall wax cold.

Unleashing the Killer App
This is not the world of the future but the one we already live in... It's already begun, and it will make feudalism look mild by comparison. We refer to these second-order effects, the combination of Moore's Law and Metcalfe's Law, as the Law of Disruption. (See Figure 1.4) It can be simply stated as follows: Social, political, and economic systems change incrementally, but technology changes exponentially.

The systems that make up human civilization, including commercial systems, change over time, but they do so on an incremental basis. Law, for example, evolves to encompass the unique features of new technologies, but it does so at an agonizingly slow pace, as anyone who has studied railroad, banking, or telecommunications law can attest. Technology change instead follows the track of Metcalfe's curve. Once there is a critical mass of users, the rate of change-what you might think of as the disruption index-accelerates exponentially. It is in the growing chasm between the different rates of change that secondary effects occur.

Technology change initially affects technology, in other words, but once critical mass is reached, the disruption takes place in other, unrelated systems.

Prophecy Rock, Hopi Prophecy
On Prophecy Rock near Oraibi, a pictograph depicts the emergence of the present world (Fourth World) progressing into the future.

The Great Spirit is represented by the large human figure on the left. The bow in his hand represents the instructions he left the Hopi to lay down their weapons.

The present world is separated into two paths. The lower path is followed by the One-Hearted people, and leads into a Paradise on Earth. The upper path is that of the Two-Hearted people and leads to self-destruction. It is the path of technology without spirituality. Three world-shaking events (believed to be World Wars I and II, and a third event to come) are depicted by the two circles and half-circle. The last circle is an event known as the "mystery egg" or Day of Purification, the severity of which will depend on how many spiritual people are working toward peace when it occurs. The one-hearted people will try to lead the two-hearted people (shown as the headless people) back to the eternal path (lower path). If the two-hearted people persist in living in ignorance, it will lead to chaos and self-destruction (jagged path).

… This time is known as the Day of Purification, when it is said that common people the world over will become disillusioned with the world leaders, and band together to fight for world peace.

Qi and the Mind:
Yi has been popularly translated “Mind.” However, another Chinese word, Xin, is also translated “Mind.” You must understand and distinguish between them in order to be able to grasp the meaning of the ancient poems and songs translated in Appendix A.

    In China, the heart is considered the most vital organ. The direct translation of Xin is “heart.” When Chinese say Zhuan-Xin, literally “single heart,” they mean “single-minded, with one mind.” It is often translated as “concentrated mind.” Xin commonly means “intention, idea, or thought,” referring to an idea which is not yet expressed, which lacks the full intention necessary to express it. When this idea is shown or expressed in some way, it is called Yi, and has the meaning of “purpose, intention, or desire.” The reader should understand that a person must have Xin first and then Yi, because Xin is the source of Yi. If you want to do something, that is called Xin. When you want it and fully intend to do it, or actually do it, this is called Yi. Sometimes the words are put together: Xin-Yi. This can be translated “mind” or “intention,” and also refers to the intention to do something specific.”
- Dr. Yang, Jwing-Ming, “Tai Chi Theory & Martial Power”, Pp. 30-31.

Peace activists plan to prevent war
London |By Glenn Frankel | 04-03-2003
The people who helped organise the largest worldwide peace demonstration in history last month say they are not through yet.

"We know that a lot of (lawmakers) were really rattled by the February 15 demonstration," said Ghada Razuki, a British Iraqi activist who led Wednesday's protest. "We want to keep the pressure on to get them off the fence."

Millions Worldwide Rally Against Iraq War
Posted on Sun, Feb. 16, 2003

Millions join anti-war protests in Europe
In Turkey, demonstrators block entrance to base
Mar. 14, 2003. 04:29 PM
"If the U.S. is so intent on disarmament, it should start at home," said Banu Dokmecibasi, a spokesman for the environmental group Greenpeace.

"It is the United States that possesses the world's most sophisticated weaponry and it is the United States that holds the world's largest arsenal of weapons of mass destruction."

Drake Equation
"What do we need to know about to discover life in space?"
Carl Sagan
He believed that the Drake Equation suggested that a large number of extraterrestrial civilizations would form, but that the lack of evidence of such civilizations suggests that technological civilizations tend to destroy themselves rather quickly. This stimulated his interest in identifying ways that humanity could destroy itself, with the hope of avoiding such destruction and eventually becoming a space-faring species.

The Drake Equation
The final factor in the equation involves the lifetime of intelligent civilizations and the lifetime of the Milky Way galaxy. The lifetime of the galaxy is believed to be about 10 billion years (1010 years), however estimating the lifetime of a communicating civilization is more difficult. The only example we have is our own civilization, which has achieved the ability for interstellar communication in only the last generation or two. But the real question is how long will we last as a civilization? This question is difficult to answer. If we are very pessimistic, we might put L at a few decades; if we are very optimistic, we might measure it on a geological timescale. We can imagine two extreme cases: a technical society that destroys itself soon after reaching the communicative phase (i.e. L<102 years) and a technical society that learns to live with itself soon after reaching the communicative phase; if the society gets past L=102 years, it is unlikely to destroy itself from then on and its lifetime can be measured on a stellar evolutionary scale (i.e. L>>108 years).

Volume 1, Number 4 - November 1989
On the pessimistic side, one could argue that beings with technology akin to ours would destroy themselves before they could make contact with another planet. Our global tensions have escalated to the point where many people think that we will utilize the nuclear weapons that we have at our disposal and therefore destroy the very civilization many are trying to preserve. Because we may not be the only beings with the potential for self-destruction, the pessimists favor the value for L = 100.

Doomsday Clock set closer to Armageddon
Wednesday, 27 February, 2002, 19:06 GMT
The Doomsday Clock - a barometer of nuclear danger for the past 55 years - has been moved two minutes closer to the midnight hour symbolising nuclear conflict.

The directors of the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists - a magazine that has campaigned for nuclear disarmament since 1947 - pushed the hands forward by two minutes, to seven minutes to midnight.

U.S. Diplomat's Letter of Resignation
February 27, 2003
…The policies we are now asked to advance are incompatible not only with American values but also with American interests. Our fervent pursuit of war with Iraq is driving us to squander the international legitimacy that has been America’s most potent weapon of both offense and defense since the days of Woodrow Wilson. We have begun to dismantle the largest and most effective web of international relationships the world has ever known. Our current course will bring instability and danger, not security.

…Why does our President condone the swaggering and contemptuous approach to our friends and allies this Administration is fostering, including among its most senior officials. Has “oderint dum metuant” really become our motto?

oderint dum metuant: Let them hate so long as they fear. (A favorite saying of Caligula.)

U.S., Russia Delay Nuclear Weapons Treaty
Ratification of U.S.-Russia Nuclear Weapons Treaty Put Off Because of Iraq
MOSCOW March 18, 2003
"We consider ratification very important, but now this step is not justified," said Sergei Shishkaryov, the deputy chairman of the Duma's international affairs committee. He added that "in essence, we are standing on the threshold of World War III."

Leaked Pentagon report warns climate change may bring famine, war: report
Sun Feb 22, 2004
LONDON (AFP) - A secret report prepared by the Pentagon warns that climate change may lead to global catastrophe costing millions of lives and is a far greater threat than terrorism.

The report was ordered by an influential US Pentagon advisor but was covered up by "US defense chiefs" for four months, until it was "obtained" by the British weekly The Observer.

The leak promises to draw angry attention to US environmental and military policies, following Washington's rejection of the Kyoto Protocol on climate change and President George W. Bush's skepticism about global warning -- a stance that has stunned scientists worldwide.

The Pentagon report, commissioned by Andrew Marshall, predicts that "abrupt climate change could bring the planet to the edge of anarchy as countries develop a nuclear threat to defend and secure dwindling food, water and energy supplies," The Observer reported.

The report, quoted in the paper, concluded: "Disruption and conflict will be endemic features of life.... Once again, warfare would define human life."

Na-qoy-qatsi: (nah koy' kahtsee) N. From the Hopi Language. 1. A life of killing each other 2. War as a way of life. 3. (Interpreted) Civilized violence.

The great Way is easy,
yet people prefer the side paths.
Be aware when things are out of balance.
Stay centered within the Tao.

When rich speculators prosper
While farmers lose their land;
when government officials spend money
on weapons instead of cures;
when the upper class is extravagant and irresponsible
while the poor have nowhere to turn-
all this is robbery and chaos.
It is not in keeping with the Tao.
- Lao-tzu , Tao-te ching “The Book of the Way and Its Power”

The Gospel of Thomas
3. Jesus said, "If your leaders say to you, 'Look, the (Father's) kingdom is in the sky,' then the birds of the sky will precede you. If they say to you, 'It is in the sea,' then the fish will precede you. Rather, the (Father's) kingdom is within you and it is outside you.
When you know yourselves, then you will be known, and you will understand that you are children of the living Father. But if you do not know yourselves, then you live in poverty, and you are the poverty."
70. Jesus said, "If you bring forth what is within you, what you have will save you. If you do not have that within you, what you do not have within you [will] kill you."

ko·an  n.
A puzzling, often paradoxical statement or story, used in Zen Buddhism as an aid to meditation and a means of gaining spiritual awakening.

NOUN: 1a. The vital principle or animating force within living beings.
b. Incorporeal consciousness.
2. The soul, considered as departing from the body of a person at death.
5a. The part of a human associated with the mind, will, and feelings: Though unable to join us today, they are with us in spirit. b. The essential nature of a person or group.

NOUN: 1. The human consciousness that originates in the brain and is manifested especially in thought, perception, emotion, will, memory, and imagination.
2. The collective conscious and unconscious processes in a sentient organism that direct and influence mental and physical behavior.
3. The principle of intelligence; the spirit of consciousness regarded as an aspect of reality.

NOUN: 1. The animating and vital principle in humans, credited with the faculties of thought, action, and emotion and often conceived as an immaterial entity.
2. The spiritual nature of humans, regarded as immortal, separable from the body at death, and susceptible to happiness or misery in a future state.

“There would be no more big questions, no more answers. Never again a love or a child; no descendents to remember us and be proud; no more voyages to the stars, no more songs from the earth.

I saw east Africa and thought, "a few million years ago we humans took our first steps there. Our brains grew and changed. The old parts began to be guided by the new parts, and this made us human -- with compassion and foresight and reason. But, instead, we listened to that reptilian voice within us, counseling fear, territoriality and aggression. We accepted the products of science; we rejected its methods".

Maybe the reptiles will evolve intelligence once more. Perhaps, one day, there will be civilizations again on earth. There will be life, there will be intelligence; but there will be no more humans -- not here, not in a billion worlds.”
- Carl Sagan, Who Speaks for Earth?

    The following book provides evidence and an argument that explains why a Native American oral tradition is more heavily influenced by holistic 'feminine' values such as 'harmony' (right hemisphere) and helps explain why most westerners have failed to perceive the relationships between those teachings and their own which are more heavily influenced by 'masculine' values such as 'order' (left hemisphere).

The Alphabet Versus the Goddess : The Conflict Between Word and Image by Leonard Shlain
“Making remarkable connections across brain function, myth, and anthropology, Dr. Shlain shows why pre-literate cultures were principally informed by holistic, right-brain modes that venerated the Goddess, images, and feminine values. Writing drove cultures toward linear left-brain thinking and this shift upset the balance between men and women, initiating the decline of the feminine and ushering in patriarchal rule. Examining the cultures of the Israelites, Greeks, Christians, and Muslims, Shlain reinterprets ancient myths and parables in light of his theory. Provocative and inspiring, this book is a paradigm-shattering work that will transform your view of history and the mind.”

    The unification of both hemispheres which American Indians refer to as 'healing' can be found in these descriptions attributed to Jesus and Lao Tzu.  (More explanation on this page, KnowYourself and the physiology pages especially Language.)

"All things in the world are two. In our mind we are two -- good and evil. With our eyes we see two things -- things that are fair and things that are ugly ... We have the right hand that strikes and makes for evil, and the left hand full of kindness, near the heart. One foot may lead us to an evil way, the other foot may lead us to a good. So are all things two, all two."
- Eagle Chief (Letakots-Lesa) (late 19th century): Pawnee

1--One Brain...or Two?--2
"It is well-known that the right side of the brain controls muscles on the left side of the body and the left side of the brain controls muscles on the right side of the body. Also, in general, sensory information from the left side of the body crosses over to the right side of the brain and information from the right side of the body crosses over to the left side of the brain. Therefore, brain damage to one side of the brain will affect the opposite side of the body."

The Gospel of Thomas
Jesus said to them, "When you make the two into one, and when you make the inner like the outer and the outer like the inner, and the upper like the lower, and when you make male and female into a single one, so that the male will not be male nor the female be female, when you make eyes in place of an eye, a hand in place of a hand, a foot in place of a foot, an image in place of an image, then you will enter [the kingdom]."

“The Tao gives birth to One.
One gives birth to Two.
Two gives birth to Three.
Three gives birth to all things.

All things have their backs to the female
And stand facing the male.
When male and female combine,
all things achieve harmony

Ordinary men hate solitude.
But the Master makes use of it,
Embracing his aloneness, realizing
he is one with the whole universe.”
- Lao-tzu , Tao-te ching “The Book of the Way and Its Power”
A New English Version by Stephen Mitchell

    In addition to those gospels referred to as the Gnostic texts apparently the Judeo/Christian patriarchy suppressed many other texts which contained holistic and 'feminine' ideas.  Actually I've not yet read Shlain's book (I finally read it in April 2004 after receiving some very supportive e-mails from him.) but I consider the theory sound and I look for my own evidence to support it.  I don't know if he discusses the Essenes but I look forward to reading his evidence after I finish collecting my own.  In the examples below I hope you'll see that despite the evidence spanning thousands of years the concepts all appear congruent.  Oh, and the reason I looked for this information is because I've formulated my own independent views on the subject.  Ever notice from an airplane that rivers and streams look like blood vessels? (see fractals or Fractals in Biology)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
In biology today, epigenetics has two closely related meanings:

bulletThe study of the processes involved in the unfolding development of an organism. This includes phenomena such as X chromosome inactivation in mammalian females, and gene silencing within an organism.
bulletThe study of heritable changes in gene function that occur without a change in the sequence of nuclear DNA. This includes the study of how environmental factors affecting a parent can result in changes in the way genes are expressed in the offspring (see Waterland citation).

Beautiful Mother Earth
Sun Bear Medicine Wheel
Loved, warmed, and made fertile by Father Sun, our Beautiful Mother Earth gives birth to, nurtures, and sustains us all:: Green Growing People, Standing People (Trees), Water Dwellers, Winged Ones, Creepy Crawlies, Four-leggeds and Two-leggeds. Materials for our homes, clothes, and tools of all kinds, as well as the food we eat -- all are provided by our Mother, the Earth. In this era we two-leggeds have not properly appreciated this, nor taken care of her. We need to start doing so NOW, or she may not be able to continue to give so generously and abundantly.

Experts Explore Health-Environment Links
May 30, 2003
The interactions between health and the environment are complex, Daulaire said, but that should not tempt humanity to shy away from studying these important connections.

"We know our health depends on the air we breathe, the water we drink and the food we eat," Daulaire said.

"Advocates for global health share common ground with the environmental movement, and the goals of both our movements are the same--the creation of a sustainable world where life can flourish and where justice is our common currency," Daulaire said.

"Most of us do not see ourselves as environmental activists," Daulaire told attendees at today's opening session. "But each person in this room is an infectious agent for change."

GAIA: A New Look at Life on Earth
James Lovelock, J. E. Lovelock
The Gaia hypothesis, first put forth in the mid-1960s, and published in book form in 1975, explores the idea that the life of earth functions as a single organism which actually defines and maintains conditions necessary for its survival. Disclaiming the conventional belief that living matter reacts passively in the face of threats to its existence, Lovelock argues that the earth's living matter - air, ocean, and land surfaces - forms a complex system which has the capacity to keep our planet a fit place for life. Now reissued with an updated preface which discusses how Lovelock's predictions have already begun to hold true, Gaia has dramatically altered the way scientists view evolution and the environment.

...And they asked him in amazement: "Who is our Mother and which her angels? And where is her kingdom?"

"Your Mother is in you, and you in her. She bore you she gives you life. it was she who gave to you your body, and to her shall you one day give it back again. Happy are you when you come to know her and her kingdom; if you receive your Mother's angels and if you do her laws. I tell you truly, he who does these things shall never see disease. For the power of our Mother is above all. And it destroys Satan and his kingdom, and has rule over all your bodies and all living things.

"The blood which runs in us is born of the blood of our Earthly Mother. Her blood falls from the clouds; leaps from the womb of the earth; babbles in the brooks of the mountains; flows wide in the rivers of the plains; sleeps in the lakes; rages mightily in tempestuous seas.

"The air which we breathe is born of the breath of our Earthly Mother. Her breath is azure in the heights of t[he] heavens; soughs in the tops of the mountains; whispers the leaves of the forest; billows over the cornfields; slumbers in the deep valleys, burns hot in the desert.

"The hardness of our bones is born of the bones of our Earthly Mother, of the rocks and of the stones. They stand naked to the heavens on the tops of mountains; are as giants that lie sleeping on the sides of the mountains, as idols set in the desert, and are hidden in the deepness of the earth.

"The tenderness of our flesh is born of the flesh of our Earthly Mother; whose flesh waxes yellow and red in the fruits of the trees, and nurtures us in the furrows of the fields.

"Our bowels are born of the bowels of our Earthly Mother, and are hid from our eyes, like the invisible depths of the earth.

"The light of our eyes, the hearing of our ears, both are born of the colors and the sounds of our Earthly Mother; which enclose us about, as the waves of the sea a fish, as the eddying air a bird.

"I tell you in very truth, Man is the Son of the Earthly Mother, and from her did the Son of Man receive his whole body, even as the body of the newborn babe is born of the womb of his mother. I tell you truly, you are one with the Earthly Mother; she is in you, and you in her. Of her were you born, in her do you live, and to her shall you return again. Keep, therefore, her laws, for none can live long, neither be happy, but he who honors his Earthly Mother and does her laws. For your breath is her breath; your blood her blood; your bone her bone; your flesh her flesh; your bowels her bowels; your eyes and your ears are her eyes and her ears.

And all those round about him listened to his words with amazement, for his word was with power, and he taught quite otherwise than the priests and scribes.

"Far more probable is that visits from intelligent entities from another planet represent a merger of an evolved intelligent species with its even more evolved intelligent computational technology.  A civilization sufficiently evolved to make the trek to Earth has likely long since passed the "merger" threshold discussed above."
- Ray Kurzweil, Delegations from Faraway Places, p. 257, "The Age of Spiritual Machines - when computers exceed human intelligence"

    Here is what I believe to be a painting of the individual many call 'God' and seven observers (angels/ETI/amesha spentas/etc.).  The painting was apparently created sometime between 2000-8000 years ago in what is now Utah.  Note the many features of the central figure with the Book of Revelation author's description of the, "one like unto the Son of Man".  The eyes "as flame of fire", the garment, the two edged sword from the mouth and even the seven 'angels' around him.  For best affect examine the picture after each verse.  For more explanation of the significance of this evidence please read my Revelation page.

The Forgotten - “Native artists, early watchers of the stars, leave us tantalizing reminders of their presence in the Southwest. Uniting NASA imagery and a shot from Utah's Horseshoe Canyon, this work evokes the cosmic background of their activity. Artist: Mark Weiler.”

Revelation 1 :: King James Version (KJV)
   I was in the Spirit on the Lord's day, and heard behind me a great voice, as of a trumpet,
11   Saying, I am Alpha and Omega, the first and the last: and, What thou seest, write in a book, and send it unto the seven churches which are in Asia; unto Ephesus, and unto Smyrna, and unto Pergamos, and unto Thyatira, and unto Sardis, and unto Philadelphia, and unto Laodicea.
12   And I turned to see the voice that spake with me. And being turned, I saw seven golden candlesticks;
13   And in the midst of the seven candlesticks one like unto the Son of man, clothed with a garment down to the foot, and girt about the paps with a golden girdle.
14   His head and his hairs were white like wool, as white as snow; and his eyes were as a flame of fire;
15   And his feet like unto fine brass, as if they burned in a furnace; and his voice as the sound of many waters.
16   And he had in his right hand seven stars: and out of his mouth went a sharp twoedged sword: and his countenance was as the sun shineth in his strength.
17   And when I saw him, I fell at his feet as dead. And he laid his right hand upon me, saying unto me, Fear not; I am the first and the last:
18   I am he that liveth, and was dead; and, behold, I am alive for evermore, Amen; and have the keys of hell and of death.
19   Write the things which thou hast seen, and the things which are, and the things which shall be hereafter;
20   The mystery of the seven stars which thou sawest in my right hand, and the seven golden candlesticks. The seven stars are the angels of the seven churches: and the seven candlesticks which thou sawest are the seven churches.

    Not surprisingly the prominent figure is referred to as the "Holy Ghost".  This is not just a random image I tried to find that would match John's description of 'the one'.  It is an historically exceptional piece of artwork and has features that would not be found elsewhere for thousands of years.

David Sucec, BCS PROJECT
The Holy Ghost composition has the appearance of visual depth. At a distance, it is easy to see the composition, framed by a shallow arch, as a group of dark figures standing, or hovering, around (behind, in front, and to the sides) a tall light figure (Holy Ghost) which is, literally and figuratively, "head and shoulders" above them. In addition, the head of the Holy Ghost is represented in a three-quarter view—the only three-dimensional representation of an anthropomorphic head in Utah and, probably, the United States.

We are accustomed to seeing convincing representations of visual space in the paintings of today but this interest (on the part of the artist) in recreating a three-dimensional space on a flat surface really only extends, scholars think, to the classical Greeks (ca. 300 b.c.e.) and, certainly, the European Renaissance (ca. c.e. 1400). The Holy Ghost Group was probably painted before 2,000 b.c.e., perhaps well before.

What could account for this early, clearly intentional, representation of the space of the "real world"—in a world of prehistoric rock art, which was, for tens of thousands of years, dominated by a flat-looking, frontal or profile, two-dimensional image and format or visual space?

    Consider the coincidence of such a being and seven 'angels' with the identification of seven beneficent immortals in Zoroastrianism.  The book of Genesis also refers repeatedly to a plurality of 'Gods'.

Ahura Mazda and the Beneficent Immortals.
"Zoroaster's teachings, as noted above, centred on Ahura Mazda, who is the highest god and alone is worthy of worship. He is, according to the Gathas, the creator of heaven and earth; i.e., of the material and the spiritual world. He is the source of the alternation of light and darkness, the sovereign lawgiver, and the very centre of nature, as well as the originator of the moral order and judge of the entire world.... He is surrounded by six or seven beings, or entities, which the later Avesta calls amesha spentas, "beneficent immortals."

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