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(This web page is part of a seven page research paper.  It is recommended that the paper be read in the order it was written.
Please begin here or you can download the entire paper in Acrobat PDF format.)

The Galaxy

“...Will matter then be destroyed or not?
The Savior said, All nature, all formations, all creatures exist in and with one another, and they will be resolved again into their own roots.
For the nature of matter is resolved into the roots of its own nature alone.
He who has ears to hear, let him hear.

Matter gave birth to a passion that has no equal, which proceeded from something contrary to nature. Then there arises a disturbance in its whole body.
That is why I said to you, Be of good courage, and if you are discouraged be encouraged in the presence of the different forms of nature.
He who has ears to hear, let him hear.”
- The Gospel According to Mary, Chapter 4, first century, Nag Hammadi Library,

    Not long ago, maybe 10 years, Black holes were only a very strange theoretical idea. On September 5, 2001 it was reported that the Chandra X-ray Observatory found the first direct evidence of a supermassive black hole in the center of our Galaxy. It is important to note that the article indicates the distance between Earth and the center is 24,000 light years.

"This is extremely exciting because it's the first time we have seen our own neighborhood supermassive black hole devour a chunk of material," said Fred Bagonoff, who with colleagues will publish their findings in the Thursday edition of the journal Nature.”

“Astronomers theorize that most galactic cores have black holes, stars so massive that they collapsed into themselves, producing gravitational monsters from which nothing can escape, even light.”

“Circumstantial evidence had hinted that the Milky Way boasted a black hole in its center, about 24,000 light-years from Earth. But astronomers had not been able to rule out another possibility, a dense cluster of dark stars.”

“Until the Chandra X-ray Observatory, a NASA satellite that for two years has hunted black holes and other exotic energy phenomena, observed an X-ray flare dim and brighten for a period of only ten minutes.”

“From this particular flash, Chandra researchers calculated that the mass at the center of the galaxy, about 2.6 million times that of the sun, fit into a space no larger than 93 million miles across. Only a black hole could be that dense, according to the known laws of physics.
- Richard Stenger, September 5, 2001, Milky Way black hole spotted, sized,

    In the past few years thanks to the Hubble Space telescope, astronomers have found evidence that supermassive black holes exist in the centers of many galaxies. These findings have forced astrophysicists to reformulate their theories of galaxy formation to include the functional purpose of these ‘monsters’. Here is a two year old article asking if these black holes are somehow instead of being monsters, the ‘mothers’ of the universe.

"Black holes aren't exactly the celestial darlings of our universe. They're commonly thought of as giant space vacuums slowly and methodically sucking the universe dry. But these monsters of destruction may not be so monstrous after all. New research that identifies three new supermassive black holes - bringing the grand total so far to 20 - adds credence to the theory that massive black holes are also intricately related to the creation and evolution of galaxies. Maybe, without black holes, we wouldn't even be here."

"The 15-member research team has found evidence that bigger galaxies have bigger black holes, and that every galaxy (with a spheroidal distribution of stars) has a central massive black hole. That leads the astronomers to believe that somehow the formation of a giant black hole and the galaxy it resides in are closely related to each other. (There are two mass ranges of black holes, those that have a mass of about 10 or 20 solar masses - one solar mass being equivalent to the mass of the Sun - and the giant black holes that the research team is studying, which are between a million and a few billion solar masses.)"
- Cynthia Reynolds, January 13, 2000, is Discovery Channel Canada’s Website, Black holes: mothers of the Universe?,

    As argued by Einstein’s theory of General Relativity which helps to explain gravity and how the ‘fabric’ of space-time may be warped or curved, I submit that recently discovered evidence of Black hole observations support my claim that our solar system is contained within a galactic sized distortion of space-time. (And Earth and the other planets are also ‘in’ one created by the sun.)

    The following article discusses observations of two bright areas of stars orbiting the black hole in the galaxy Andromeda (M31). As my theory would predict, the orbital velocity of stars should slow the further they move away from the center of the galaxy and accelerate the closer they get. In the article this is exactly what is observed while watching stars that are ‘apparently’ among stars that comprise part of the core. I contend that while it is easier to watch this phenomenon for stars whose orbits are relatively small, the same effect holds true for stars ‘much’ further from the center. Of course stars much further away from the center would not be as effected by their mutual attraction as those very near the center, due to the lower population density.

“But as past observations have suggested, Andromeda has two points of brightness at its center. Statler and his colleagues used the Hubble’s Faint Object Camera to record the spectrum of the two nuclei. A spectrum, unlike a direct picture, splits the light into its component colors. Using this information, the astronomers were able to map the orbital motions of the stars around the center.”

“Their findings, published in the February issue of The Astronomical Journal, support a model that suggests stars in Andromeda are orbiting the galaxy’s black hole in a lopsided path and are piling up -- sort of a cosmic traffic jam -- at the section of the orbit that is farthest away from the black hole.”

“When stars swing closer to the center, they go faster. When they move away from it, they go slower. It’s almost like you’re getting a traffic jam at the slow section of the orbit,” Statler says. “One of the bright spots in the nucleus would be the area where the stars are piling up, and the other marks where they rush through on their closest approach to the black hole.”
- Report on the work of Thomas Statler, 3/3/99, RESEARCHERS OBTAIN CLEAREST VIEW OF NEARBY GALAXY’S CORE,

    In the article Statler has trouble explaining how the stars’ orbits are arranged in such a lopsided way. I contend that the bright spot on the side furthest from the center is due to the slower orbital velocity resulting in clustering (like when a bunch of kids run around the corner of a building). Where the article mentions Statler’s idea that the other area of brightness closest to the black hole may be due to a specific ‘cluster’ of stars it’s also noted that he has data that challenges that idea. I contend the brightness is certainly not entirely due to star clustering as it is on the other end but instead is largely due to coronal ‘shedding’ or novae.

    Through further study of Black holes, fundamental and direct relationships have been found to exist between the mass of the objects and all of the other material within their galaxy. This is an extremely important set of findings.

“Though this secret relationship between a black hole and its host galaxy has been suspected for the past several years, it is bolstered by the Hubble discovery of 10 more supermassive black holes in galaxy centers, raising the total to more than 30 black holes now available for study. "For the first time we can put strong constraints on the relationship between galaxy formation and black hole formation and growth," says Kormendy.”

“The results now show a close relationship between the black hole mass and the stars that comprise an elliptical galaxy or the central bulge stars of a spiral galaxy. But surprisingly, an even tighter correlation is found. "Other observations of the entire stellar mass of the bulge show a very tight relationship between a black hole's mass and the depth of the gravitational potential well as measured by the magnitude of random velocities of stars in the galaxy's hub. This bolsters the conclusion that the mass correlation is real," says Gebhardt.”
- SPACE TELESCOPE SCIENCE INSTITUTE PHOTO RELEASE, Posted: June 5, 2000, Black hole survey sheds light on galaxy formation,

    In the center of our Galaxy exists the combined mass of a supermassive black hole, 100 billion stars, gas and dust. The most important thing to note in this article is the realization that this new evidence defies prior theoretical predictions as to how far the event horizon should be from the black hole and how far away matter orbits the ‘hole’.

“Separately, in the Sept. 8, 2001 (vol. 160, #10) issue of Science News (offline) is an article about a recently measured X-ray/radio flare-up of the super massive black hole at the center of the galaxy. The measurements, were for the first time, able to pinpoint the location of this black hole to high precision. Investigators have reported that nearby orbiting stars indicate that the event horizon is 30,000 times larger than it is supposed to be for the measured black hole mass as predicted by current theory. And the nearby orbiting matter is 1,500 times farther away from the event horizon than it should be as predicted by current theory.”
- E-mail by Joe Firmage of Motion Sciences, December 17, 2001 republished at

    The super massive black hole in the center of our Galaxy (and most galaxies) is not the only kind of black hole we are aware of and can learn from. The black hole and its ‘lunch’ companion now passing over our solar system provides evidence that matter swirling around the black hole is ‘much’ farther away than expected.

“Observations from four spacecraft have identified the inner edge of a spinning disk of material around a black hole about 5,000 light-years from Earth. The surprising results show that the disk is much farther from the black hole than astronomers expected.”
- Vanessa Thomas, 5/13/2001, Black Hole Accretion Disk Keeps its Distance,

    It seems to me that the physical evidence discovered from these two black hole studies as well as the relationship of black hole mass and galaxy mass significantly challenges traditional theories of black hole gravitational effects and space-time distortions. It’s my opinion that those theories should be altered to incorporate a quantum theory of gravity, and include the gravitational effect of the combined mass of the black hole, 100 billion stars, gas and dust in an attempt to explain how stars even at the outer ‘rims’ of spiral galaxies are contained within and do not ‘spin out’ beyond the galactic core’s influence. Actually I think the chart above ‘visually’ explains quite a bit about the effects.

Not surprisingly, these new and theory busting discoveries have forced astrophysicists and astronomers to reconsider galaxy formation. The following recently published article contains references to research and conclusions that directly supports my theory of the dimensions of the space-time distortion in which our solar system is traveling. NB. I disagree with the article’s claim that we are 27,000 light years from the center. I have already noted the various claims that the distance is in dispute and measurements range from 24,000 to 30,000. At this rate of discovery which will only be accelerated by the March 2002 upgrade to the Hubble telescope I anticipate several groups in different countries will reach the same conclusions I am proposing very soon. Note the evidence that the Galaxies Corona is hot, "It probably has a temperature in excess of 1 million degrees (Fahrenheit)." Wouldn’t this source of energy and heat provide a more plausible explanation for the cosmic background radiation? Particularly in light of the fact that this energy appears to be contained within the gravitational boundaries of the Galaxy.

After a decade when other astronomical targets got more attention, the Milky Way has come back into vogue as a hot research subject in the new millennium, leading to a whole new picture of how the galaxy formed, how unimaginably huge it is, and what it looks like from afar.

"There's been a renaissance in studying the Milky Way," says Steven Majewski, an astronomer at the University of Virginia who specializes in the structure of the galaxy.

As a result of the newfound interest, astronomers are rapidly unraveling the Milky Way's mysteries.

What they're learning is that the mighty Milky Way attained some of its girth by gravitationally dominating many merger transactions, otherwise known as galaxy gobbling. And surprisingly, our home galaxy was recently found to be surrounded by an invisible sphere that appears to influence space for well more than 100,000 light-years in all directions.

Cosmic archeology
Majewski says the new interest stems in large part from an incredible finding in the 1994, when astronomers spotted a nearby galaxy they'd never seen before.

The Sagittarius dwarf galaxy turned out to be the closest neighbor to our own, just 75,000 light-years from Earth. Researchers began to suspect the galaxy was being absorbed by the Milky Way, an idea that got further support in a study released two weeks ago.

Other evidence of mergers has shown up in the past couple of years in the form of stellar entrails, small streams of stars that travel in packs throughout the Milky Way but on paths unrelated to the movement of the rest of the galaxy's stars.

Invisible corona
The stars of the Milky Way's main disk span a region of space about 100,000 light-years across, and the thick central bulge is a sphere about 25,000 light-years in diameter. To picture this, think of a typical sci-fi flying saucer. For decades, this was the official picture of our galaxy. More recently, a handful of studies have added a sprinkling of stars that live in a sparse halo outside the main disk.

Then early this year, astronomers made a remarkable announcement: Our galaxy's influence extends as far as 150,000 light-years in all directions, in the form of an invisible, gaseous sphere called a corona.

Researchers have known for some years that a corona existed. But its newfound size is astonishing, says Kenneth Sembach of the Space Telescope Science

Institute, who made the discovery with a team of other researchers using NASA's FUSE spacecraft.

"The corona is hot," Sembach told "It probably has a temperature in excess of 1 million degrees (Fahrenheit)."

The corona is only sparsely sprinkled with particles, however, and nearly impossible to detect on its own. Yet when cold, extragalactic clouds of hydrogen gas fall into the corona, their outer shells become superheated and thus detectable, Sembach explained. FUSE found several of these clouds racing into the galaxy at nearly 1 million mph.
- Robert Roy Britt Senior Science Writer, 12 March 2002, The New Milky Way: Bird's Eye View and Other Fresh Insights,  &

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