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Evidence for, and identification of, physiological mechanisms for Jungian identified functions and attitudes

    Here first, are a few citations to provide some foundation for identifying and discussing the cortical functions that give rise to distinctions in personality thought and behavior.  By the way I use the word “engram” throughout this site so I thought best to identify the concept.  Identifying the energy requirements of the brain is an extremely important fact, for it helps explain a large number of behavioral 'preferences' and is essential for explaining other concepts such as PASS and Chi.

Neural Physiology (background)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

An engram is a memory trace, one possible explanation for the persistence of memory. Fundamentally, an engram is posited to be a physical, biochemical change in the brain (and other neural tissue) in response to external stimuli, thus forming a memory.

Karl Lashley coined the term and did extensive research to localize engrams in the 1920s.

Cerebral hemisphere
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

The cerebral hemisphere forms one half of a brain. Humans (and many other types of animals) have a brain divided into two hemispheres. Each hemisphere is a mirror image of the other and has an outer layer of gray matter called the cerebral cortex.

Neurologists normally subdivide the cerebral cortex into the following four lobes:

bulletthe frontal lobe - in front of the parietal lobe
bulletthe parietal lobe - above the occipital lobe, behind the frontal lobe
bulletthe occipital lobe - in the rearmost portion of the skull
bulletthe temporal lobe - at the side of the skull

Neurologists also recognize two additional areas of the cerebral cortex:

bulletthe Limbic Cortex - including the cingulate cortex, located above the corpus callosum.
bulletthe Insular Cortex - buried within the lateral sulcus.

In most people, the left hemisphere of the human brain dominates, and specialises (in very broad terms) in speech, writing, language and calculation. The right hemisphere has equivalent broad associations with spatial abilities, coherent form recognition, visual face recognition and some aspects of music perception and production. (Pop psychology simplifies these distinctions into a crude binary system whereby a person appears pre-dominantly "left-brained" or "right-brained": logical or "creative"; or vice versa. One or the other.)

The hemispheres operate together, linked by the corpus callosum, a very large bundle of nerve fibers, and also by other smaller commissures, including the anterior commissure.

Power of a Human Brain
The Physics Factbook, Edited by Glenn Elert -- Written by his students
"The brain makes up 2% of a person's weight. Despite this, even at rest, the brain consumes 20% of the body's energy. The brain consumes energy at 10 times the rate of the rest of the body per gram of tissue. The average power consumption of a typical adult is 100 Watts and the brain consumes 20% of this making the power of the brain 20 W.”


Physiology of Type
    Please read the following web pages from Dr. Katherine Benziger on the physiology of type.

Physiology of Type: Introversion and Extraversion,  Written by Katherine Benziger
The Physiology of Type: Jung's Four Functions,  Written by Katherine Benziger
The Physiology of Falsification of Type ,  Written by Katherine Benziger
also see, Geared Up for the 21st Century, Written by Katherine Benziger, Arlene Taylor

    If the content appears too difficult for you at the current time then skip to the conclusions at the end of the second document and return to the content if you believe it is necessary. Please pay close attention to Reticular Activating System (RAS), cortical efficiency, functional orientation (location of each function), and Prolonged Adaptive Stress Syndrome (PASS). Many people understand the Jungian functions as being qualities of people’s “personality”. Instead it should be pointed out that personality is only one physical manifestation of cognitive function. In other words the way your brain/mind works determines how you behave and appear to others. Your outward behavior or “personality” is a “product” of your cognitive functions (function follows form). You are your mind.  Here are the conclusions drawn at the end of the second document.

The Physiology of Jung’s Four Functions & Their Organization
By Katherine Benziger, Ph.D., © March 1998; September 1999
From the above overview we have learned that:

  1. Jung’s four Functions are rooted in four distinct areas of the cortex. Thinking is housed in the Left Frontal Lobe. Intuition is housed in the Right Frontal Lobe. Sensation is housed in the Left Posterior Convexity. Feeling is housed in the Right Posterior Convexity.
  2. Jung’s assertion that each of us has one Natural Lead Function is the result of a neuro-chemical - physiological fact that each person has one area which is 100 times more efficient than their remaining three areas.
  3. Jung’s assertion that each person has two natural auxiliaries can be understood to be the natural result of the brain’s structure. Factually speaking, neuronal bridges hardwire a person’s Natural Lead to their auxiliaries, making communication between their lead and auxiliaries easy, even though each actual auxiliary is relatively speaking highly inefficient.
  4. Jung’s assertion that once a person’s Natural Lead Function has been identified, one can confidently calculate the person’s greatest Natural Weakness, is the result of the simply fact that there are no diagonal bridges in the human brain.
  5. The difference between the Feeling Function and Emotions can be understood more clearly. The Feeling Function is a cortical capacity to recognize the presence or absence of harmony – between colors, tones, or human beings. By contrast, emotions are a limbic capacity to experience delight, anger, fear, grief.
  6. Jung’s belief that Falsification of Type was real possibility is understood to be the natural result of anyone developing and using any of their three inefficient, non-preferred Functions more than their highly efficient Natural Lead Function. What’s more, Jung’s assertion that Falsification of Type can be a serious threat to a person’s physical and mental / emotional health has been validated by the work of Dr. Katherine Benziger and Dr. Arlene Taylor, resulting recently in the profound recognition that Falsification of Type leads dependably to a serious results as defined by PASS.

Thus, quite simply, the elements of Jung’s Typology related to the existence and relative organization of four specialized functions or ways of "thinking" is explained.”

    The most significant material related to enlightenment and its symbol the circle are the relative locations of the cognitive functions and the fact that each function is “connected” only to the quadrants horizontal and vertical to them and not “diagonally”.  Another way of saying the same thing is that the four quadrants are wired in a “circle”. When balanced and integrated the neural connections create a circle of thought. The circle and recurring patterns are often internally visualized by the individual upon enlightenment.  A frequently cited example is the Mandala.  Apparently when Carl Jung help his patients to 'heal' themselves they often spontaneously created Mandalas.  Consequently the circle is the universal symbol of consciousness (and soul). There are two judging functions and two perceiving functions and each type is diagonally opposite the other so they never “link” directly to each other. That is a “Feeling” engram cannot “link” to a “thinking” engram without first linking to an engram in one or the other perceiving functions.  Even though the quadrants are 'wired' in a circular pattern I believe they each operate independently and simultanously.

    Our modern ESTJ dominant culture (U.S.A.) does not allow us time to learn all four qualities of our environment. People are forced by time constraints and preferred cognitive function to ignore a great deal of information. Additionally the very act of focusing concentration of your preferred functions on information that does not correspond with those functions “prevents” you from learning. You can see this on people’s faces when two people are discussing concepts that conflict with each other’s preferred functions. Each listener will focus concentration and listen for words, concepts, and body language that correspond with their functional preference. If the content does not conform, their eyes may glaze over and they will stair off in the distance until they hear an idea they do understand and that is what they respond to. However that single idea will have been taken out of context and an argument is likely to ensue.


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