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Cosmic Ancestry

“We’re about to begin a journey through the cosmos. We’ll encounter galaxies and suns and planets, life and consciousness coming into being, evolving, and perishing, worlds of ice and stars of diamond, atoms as massive as suns and universes smaller than atoms. But it’s also a story of our own planet, and the plants and animals that share it with us, and it’s a story about us, how we achieved our present understanding of the cosmos, how the cosmos has shaped our evolution and our culture and what our fate may be. We wish to pursue the truth no matter where it leads, but to find the truth, we need imagination and skepticism both. We will not be afraid to speculate, but we will be careful to distinguish speculation from fact. The cosmos is full beyond measure of elegant truths, of exquisite inter-relationships, of the awesome machinery of nature.”

“The surface of the Earth is the shore of the cosmic ocean. On this shore we’ve learned most of what we know. Recently, we’ve waded a little way out, maybe ankle-deep, and the water seems inviting. Some part of our being knows this is where we came from. We long to return. And we can’t, because the cosmos is also within us. We’re "made" of star stuff. We are a way that the cosmos can know itself. The journey for each of us begins here. We’re going to explore the cosmos in a ship of the imagination, unfettered by ordinary limits on speed and size, drawn by the music of cosmic harmonies. It can take us anywhere in space and time. Perfect as a snowflake, organic as a dandelion seed, it will carry us to worlds of dreams and worlds of facts. Come with me.”
- Carl Sagan, Universal Mind

     This selection of documents is probably the most disturbing to read.  Within them you will find evidence that the six billion (seven?) people on this planet are not the first humans in the Universe.  Instead there are likely trillions of humans living on billions of planets in billions of galaxies in many places of both space and time and why most people on this planet will perish if they don't exist.  

Time Enough for Life
By Peter Backus, SETI Institute, 16 October 2003
A team of SETI Institute scientists, as part of the NASA Astrobiology Institute, is bringing together experts to reconsider the possibility of life on planets orbiting small stars. Such stars are the most common. Over three-quarters of all stars are less than half the mass of the Sun. If such stars are suitable hosts for habitable planets, life may be far more widespread than w
e ever imagined.

ET Visitors: Scientists See High Likelihood
By Leonard David,
Senior Space Writer, 14 January 2005
Now a team of American scientists note that recent astrophysical discoveries suggest that we should find ourselves in the midst of one or more extraterrestrial civilizations. Moreover, they argue it is a mistake to reject all UFO reports since some evidence for the theoretically-predicted extraterrestrial visitors might just be found there.

The researchers make their proposal in the January/February 2005 issue of the Journal of the British Interplanetary Society (JBIS).

Curious situation
Pick up any good science magazine and you’re sure to see the latest in head-scratching ideas about superstring theory, wormholes, or the stretching of spacetime itself. Meanwhile, extrasolar planetary detection is on the verge of becoming mundane.

"We are in the curious situation today that our best modern physics and astrophysics theories predict that we should be experiencing extraterrestrial visitation, yet any possible evidence of such lurking in the UFO phenomenon is scoffed at within our scientific community," contends astrophysicist Bernard Haisch.

Haisch along with physicists James Deardorff, Bruce Maccabee and Harold Puthoff make their case in the JBIS article: "Inflation-Theory Implications for Extraterrestrial Visitation".

The scientists point to two key discoveries made by Australian astronomers and reported last year that there is a "galactic habitable zone" in our Milky Way Galaxy. And more importantly that Earth’s own star, the Sun, is relatively young in comparison to the average star in this zone -- by as much as a billion years.

Therefore, the researchers explain in their JBIS article that an average alien civilization would be far more advanced and have long since discovered Earth. Additionally, other research work on the supposition underlying the Big Bang -- known as the theory of inflation -- shores up the prospect, they advise, that our world is immersed in a much larger extraterrestrial civilization.


     In late February 2002 I replaced several pages in this section with the contents of a research paper I am working on.  The paper can be downloaded and read off-line by clicking here.  It’s an Acrobat PDF file about 520 Kb in size, 42 pages long, with at least 75 unique citations and entirely scientific.

     The theory contains simplistic and easy to understand explanations for things like why the Big Bang Cosmology is nonsense and Hoyle and associates’ Quasi Steady State Cosmology is more theoretically and evidentially valid. I answer 'redshift' questions that no one has been able or willing to answer, what caused two global mass extinctions on Earth 220 and 440 million years ago, how Saturn got it’s current rings, why the Sun is increasing its energy output and changing the climate of Earth and Mars, the accelerating rise in standard IQ worldwide as well as the accelerating decrease in age of sexual maturation, and disorders like Asperger’s, Social Anxiety, ADD and ADHD. In my conclusion I make several predictions that should help prove my theory.

     I welcome any critical and constructive feedback as I consider it a work in progress.  If my theory is correct (currently I’m 99% certain it is) then perhaps others will see the war on terrorism as I see it, a naďve and self-destructive distraction.  I see the desire to control other people, puddles of oil, piles of dirt, shiny rocks and scraps of paper particularly meaningless.  Here are some excerpted and condensed citations to entice you to read the paper.

“The suppression of uncomfortable ideas may be common in religion or in politics, but it is not the path to knowledge, and there's no place for it in the endeavor of science. We do not know beforehand where fundamental insights will arise from about our mysterious and lovely solar system. The history of our study of our solar system shows us clearly that accepted and conventional ideas are often wrong, and that fundamental insights can arise from the most unexpected sources.”
- Carl Sagan, Cosmos television series

“Measurements of periodic red-shift bunching appeared in the literature at least as far back as 1977 in the work of W.G. Tifft. The implications of this phenomenon are apparently too terrible to contemplate, for astrophysicists have not taken up the challenge. They may be forced to take the phenomenon more seriously, because two new reports of redshift bunching have surfaced.”

“First, B. Guthrie and W, Napier, at Edinburgh's Royal Observatory, have checked Tifft's "bunching" claim using accurately known red shifts of some nearby galaxies. They found a periodicity of 37.5 kilometers/second -- no matter in which direction the galaxies lay.”
- William R. Corliss, From Science Frontiers #80, MAR-APR 1992, Science Frontiers ONLINE, No. 80: Mar-Apr 1992, MORE EVIDENCE FOR GALACTIC "SHELLS" OR "SOMETHING ELSE",

“From this discussion it is obvious that if two or more quasars have the same value of z, they are at the same distance (though in different directions) from the Earth. In other words, assuming the cosmological red-shift hypothesis, the quasars in the 57 groups in Table I are arranged on 57 spherical shells with Earth as the center. This is certainly an extraordinary result. Some of the possibilities that we shall consider to accommodate this result may be disturbing, but we must consider these possibilities dispassionately.”

“We are essentially left with only one possibility - No.3...3. “The Earth is indeed the center of the Universe. The arrangement of quasars on certain spherical shells is only with respect to the Earth. These shells would disappear if viewed from another galaxy or a quasar. This means that the cosmological principle will have to go. Also, it implies that a coordinate system fixed to the Earth will be a preferred frame of reference in the Universe....

- Image from Hans Haubold, A. M. Mathai, 1998, Figure 10, GRAVITATIONAL INTERACTION: STRUCTURE OF THE MACROCOSMOS,

NARRATOR: "The data showed that the distant supernovae were dimmer and therefore much farther away than the team expected. Instead of slowing down, the expansion of the universe has been speeding up with galaxies moving apart at greater and greater velocities."

ADAM RIESS: "I was actually scared that I had made an error. One by one, we started checking off sort of a long list of possible errors and none of them seemed to be the case. Finally, we had to come to grips with this unusual result. I no longer looked at it as a likely mistake, but rather as something very bizarre that nature was trying to tell us. “

BRIAN SCHMIDT: "It was not something that I particularly wanted to be in my data. And so I was horrified because I knew that it was going to be very difficult to sell this to my colleagues, because my colleagues are the ones who have educated me, and they…”

“NARRATOR: Brian's colleagues, along with the entire scientific community, might have discounted his results, except that Saul Perlmutter's group--working separately--announced the exact same conclusion.”

“The discovery seemed to contradict everything we thought we knew about gravity and its impact on galaxies and stars.”
- A NOVA Production by Thomas Lucas Productions, Inc. for WGBH/Boston, © 2000 WGBH Educational Foundation, PBS air date: November 21, 2000, NOVA #2713: Runaway Universe,

"But to most theoretical physicists the cosmological constant has seemed utterly mysterious and unnecessary, and many have been reluctant to accept the results of the supernovae teams.

...Their results show that the universe is full of dark energy, completely consistent with the earlier supernovae results. "It seems that Einstein did not make a blunder after all -- dark energy appears to exist and to dominate over more conventional types of matter," Efstathiou said. "An explanation of the dark energy may involve String Theory, extra dimensions or even what happened before the Big Bang. At present nobody knows. The ball is now firmly in the theorists court."
- Royal Astronomical Society, 20 March 2002, Universe Expansion is Accelerating, UK and Australian Researchers Say,

“An unflinching determination to take the whole evidence into account is the only method of preservation against the fluctuating extremes of fashionable opinion.”
- Alfred North Whitehead

Punctuated Equilibrium
“The "punctuated equilibrium" theory of Niles Eldredge and Stephen Jay Gould was proposed as a criticism of the traditional Darwinian theory of evolution. Eldredge and Gould observed that evolution tends to happen in fits and starts, sometimes moving very fast, sometimes moving very slowly or not at all. On the other hand, typical variations tend to be small. Therefore, Darwin saw evolution as a slow, continuous process, without sudden jumps. However, if you study the fossils of organisms found in subsequent geological layers, you will see long intervals in which nothing changed ("equilibrium"), "punctuated" by short, revolutionary transitions, in which species became extinct and replaced by wholly new forms. Instead of a slow, continuous progression, the evolution of life on Earth seems more like the life of a soldier: long periods of boredom interrupted by rare moments of terror.”
- F. Heylighen, Jul 22, 1999, Copyright© 1999 Principia Cybernetica, Punctuated Equilibrium

More evidence for mass extinction - Lava flow twice the size of Europe covered Siberia 250 million years ago
PHILIP BALL, 7 June 2002
“We knew it was big - but not this big. Geologists now suspect the massive eruption of lava in Siberia 250 million years ago [250 is disputed] was at least twice as large as they'd thought. This makes it even more likely to have caused the biggest extinction the world has ever seen.”

“The Permian period ended with the extinction of 85% of all ocean creatures and 70% of land ones - a toll three times greater than the extinction that killed off the dinosaurs at the end of the Cretaceous, 65 million years ago.”

Inner Earth Spews Superplumes
April 19, 2002
"Generally, it is assumed that only about 10 percent of the heat that comes out at the surface of the Earth comes from the earth's core. This number may thus be underestimated, perhaps as much as by a factor of two," she wrote.

Regions above the superplumes tend to bulge upward. The plateaus of southern and eastern Africa are about 1,600 feet higher than most old continental areas in the world, she pointed out. This is referred to as the "African superswell."

Also, she wrote, heat flow from the Earth's interior measured in a wide area of southern Africa is higher than expected, indicating that an unusually large supply of heat must be coming from underneath.

- Robert Roy Britt, 17 January 2001, Meltdown: Satellites Show Accelerated Polar Ice Threat
- Staff, 29 May 2002, Satellites Show Alarming Retreat of Glaciers

Redistributing Earth's Mass
Anny Cazenave and R. Steven Nerem
Volume 297, Number 5582, Issue of 2 Aug 2002, pp. 831-833.
Since the end of the last glaciation, postglacial rebound of Earth's crust has resulted in a net transfer of mass from the equatorial regions to high latitudes. This small mass transfer has been monitored for 25 years. But a report by Cox and Chao suggests that since 1998, the mass transfer has changed direction. In their Perspective, Cazenave and Nerem discuss possible mechanisms that may have caused this change.

Mysterious Shift in Earth's Gravity Suggests Equator is Bulging
01 August 2002
Since the late 1970s, satellite measurements have shown that this post-glacial rebound, as it is called, generates a corresponding rounding of Earth's gravity field.  Suddenly the trend has reversed.

"Sometime around 1998, something began to make the Earth's gravity field flatter," says Christopher Cox of Raytheon Information Technology and Scientific Services. "The result is it looks as if post-glacial rebound has reversed itself. But, we do not have any reason to think that post-glacial rebound has in any way stopped or changed."

In effect, Cox said in an interview, while post-glacial rebound continues to make the Earth rounder, some movement of mass on the surface of the Earth must be making the gravity field flatter. It's not a change anyone could notice; it's only revealed by sensitive satellite measurements.

The shift, however, is significant.

"The effect is twice as large as post-glacial rebound in terms of effect on the gravity field, and it's in the opposite direction," Cox said. "Whatever it is, it's big."

Black hole survey sheds light on galaxy formation
The results now show a close relationship between the black hole mass and the stars that comprise an elliptical galaxy or the central bulge stars of a spiral galaxy. But surprisingly, an even tighter correlation is found. "Other observations of the entire stellar mass of the bulge show a very tight relationship between a black hole's mass and the depth of the gravitational potential well as measured by the magnitude of random velocities of stars in the galaxy's hub. This bolsters the conclusion that the mass correlation is real," says Gebhardt.”

Science lists 1998’s biggest breakthroughs - Weird discovery about our accelerating universe ranks No. 1 in annual review
Alan Boyle, MSNBC, Dec. 17, 1998,
“The universe is not only expanding, but that expansion appears to be speeding up. And as if that discovery alone weren’t strange enough, it implies that most of the energy in the cosmos is contained in empty space — a concept that Albert Einstein considered but discarded as his “biggest blunder.” The new findings have been recognized as 1998’s top scientific breakthrough by Science magazine.”

special relativity - Yahoo! Reference: American Heritage® Dictionary
NOUN: The physical theory of space and time developed by Albert Einstein,... The theory has as consequences the relativistic mass increase of rapidly moving objects, the Lorentz-Fitzgerald contraction, time dilatation, and the principle of mass-energy equivalence. Also called special theory of relativity.

“Global warming -- the gradual increase in planet-wide temperatures -- seems to be accepted by many scientists and people now as fact. Generally, this warming is attributed to the increase of green-house gases in the Earth's upper atmosphere.”

“However, some solar scientists are considering whether the warming exists at all. And, if it does, might it be caused, wholely or in part, by a periodic but small increase in the Sun's energy output. An increase of just 0.2% in the solar output could have the same affect as doubling the carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere.”
- Stanford University, 1997, Global Warming - Does it Exist? If so, is it Man- or Sun-made?,
- Image from Friis-Christensen, E., and K. Lassen, "Length of the solar cycle: An indicator of solar activity closely associated with climate," Science, 254, 698-700, 1991, found at

Since the late 1970s, the amount of solar radiation the sun emits, during times of quiet sunspot activity, has increased by nearly .05 percent per decade, according to a NASA funded study.

"This trend is important because, if sustained over many decades, it could cause significant climate change," said Richard Willson, a researcher affiliated with NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies and Columbia University's Earth Institute, New York. He is the lead author of the study recently published in Geophysical Research Letters.

"Historical records of solar activity indicate that solar radiation has been increasing since the late 19th century. If a trend, comparable to the one found in this study, persisted throughout the 20th century, it would have provided a significant component of the global warming the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reports to have occurred over the past 100 years," he said.

“A new study confirms a long-held theory that large solar storms rain electrically charged particles down on Earth's atmosphere and deplete the upper-level ozone for weeks to months thereafter.

“When protons like these bombard the upper atmosphere, they break up molecules of gases like nitrogen and water vapor, and once freed, those atoms react with ozone molecules and reduce the layer.”

"A lot of impacts on ozone are very subtle and happen over long periods of time," said Charles Jackman, a researcher at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Laboratory for Atmospheres and lead author of the study. "But when these solar proton events occur you can see immediately a change in the atmosphere, so you have a clear cause and effect."

- Goddard Space Flight Center, August 1, 2001, Stormy Space Weather Takes a Toll on Ozone,

“ (12/02/2001) Scientists suspect global warming is cause of "deeply worrying" 80-90% drop in Atlantic zooplankton; loss of bottom of marine food chain threatens to cause widespread starvation and death of all levels of marine life from fish to dolphins and whales, destroying entire ocean ecosystem already being devastated by overfishing.”

"This is deeply worrying," said marine biologist Dr Phil Williamson, of East Anglia University. "We don't know why zooplankton numbers have plummeted, though global warming looks the best candidate. What is certain is that removing the bottom link from the ocean food chain could have profound and unpleasant results."

“(11/19/2000) Scientists say global warming cause of alarming 70% drop in zooplankton off California coast since mid-1970s, warn impact on entire West Coast marine ecosystem could be catastrophic. More than 70 percent of the zooplankton - the tiny free-floating animals that are food for larger creatures - have disappeared from the Pacific Ocean along the coast of California since the mid-1970s, a phenomenon related to the overall rise in ocean temperature due to global warming, say scientists at the Scripps Institute of Oceanography. Plankton are critical to the survival of all marine life from whales to sea birds, scientists warn, but warmer waters and changing ocean currents mean less plankton for marine animals, which may be why harbor seals, stellar sea lions and sea birds are disappearing.”

"What is going on in the ocean is large and unprecedented," said John McGowan, an oceanographer at Scripps. "These are huge events. This is a new kind of ecology."

- Earth Crash Earth Spirit, updated as of 1/24/2002, Global Warming: Oceans, (citations from various publications),

"High-resolution images snapped by NASA's Mars Global Surveyor show that levels of frozen water and carbon dioxide at the Red Planet's poles have dwindled dramatically — by more than 10 feet — over a single Martian year (equivalent to 687 days or about two Earth years)."

"We weren't expecting to see something nearly this large," said Caplinger.

- Amanda Onion, Dec. 7, 2001, Red Planet Warming, Images Show Mars' Ice Caps Are Melting Fast,

"Like Galileo, I wrote in the common language of the laity-as an educational measure. I realized that arguments in scientific societies are not the way that the ideas of a culture are changed."
- John C. Lilly, M.D

Shermer's Last Law, By Michael Shermer, January 2002
“In Clarke's 1953 novel, called Childhood's End, humanity reaches something like a singularity and must then make the transition to a higher state of consciousness.”

"Nature shows that with the growth of intelligence comes increased capacity for pain, and it is only with the highest degree of intelligence that suffering reaches its supreme point."
- Arthur Schopenhauer

IQ scores are rising so dramatically, say researchers who study intelligence, that a high proportion of people considered average at the turn of the 20th century would be regarded as significantly below average by today's tests.”

"It's a genuine mystery," said John Loehlin, a University of Texas-Austin professor of psychology. "All of the explanations given are probably true, but it's still hard to see how they would account for such a large jump."
- Todd Ackerman, 3/15/1998, Copyright 1998 Houston Chronicle Science Writer, Experts at loss to explain large jump in average IQ,

“James Flynn, a political scientist working in New Zealand, observed in the 1980's that the scores of different groups of people on standard intelligence tests had consistently augmented over the past decades.”

“Since then, the so-called "Flynn effect" has been confirmed by numerous studies. The same pattern, an average increase of over three IQ points per decade, was found for virtually every type of intelligence test, delivered to virtually every type of group.”

"The increase was highest, 20 points per generation (30 years), in Belgium, Holland and Israel, and lowest, 10 points per generation, in Denmark and Sweden. Although the data are limited, it moreover seems that the increase is accelerating."

“One might expect that the Flynn effect would be more clear for tests that emphasize culture or education. The opposite is true, however: the increase is most striking for tests measuring the ability to recognize abstract, non-verbal patterns. Tests emphasizing traditional school knowledge show much less progress. This means that something more profound than mere accumulation of data is happening inside people's heads. None of the scientists who have studied the effect can offer a simple explanation.”

“For one type of test, Raven's Progressive Matrices, Flynn found data that spanned a complete century. He concluded that someone who scored among the best 10% a hundred years ago, would nowadays be categorized among the 5% weakest. That means that someone who would be considered bright a century ago, should now be considered a moron!”
- Principia Cybernetica Web, Increasing intelligence: the Flynn effect,

- Diana Zuckerman, Winter 2001, When Little Girls Become Women: Early Onset of Puberty in Girls,

- Reuters Health, Sep. 13, 2001, NEW YORK, US boys may be hitting puberty sooner: report,

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