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Virus

Viruses are mobile genetic elements
Computer viruses are called viruses because they are analogous to real viruses, the ones that infect living cells. Because viruses are simpler than cells, biologists used to think that maybe viruses were the precellular life forms that neo-Darwinism requires. Today even the neo-Darwinists themselves don't think that viruses are this link. Viruses are not independently capable of metabolism or reproduction. Biologists now think that viruses evolved after cells. What is a virus?

"Euclid taught me that without assumptions there is no proof. Therefore, in any argument, examine the assumptions."
- Eric Temple Bell, Scottish-U.S. Mathematician, Educator, Writer, (1883-1960)

"I have encountered a few "creationists" and because they were usually nice, intelligent people, I have been unable to decide whether they were really mad, or only pretending to be mad. If I was a religious person, I would consider creationism nothing less than blasphemy. Do its adherents imagine that God is a cosmic hoaxer who has created the whole vast fossil record for the sole purpose of misleading humankind?"
- Arthur C. Clarke

Here’s a little more biblical (historical) and supporting scientific information for my theory.  Here's an excerpt from Asimov's Guide to the Bible (p. 21) concerning the identity of 'Man'.

"In J's tale of creation (more primitive than that of P) God does not call human beings into existence by spoken command alone.  Rather, he shapes them out of clay as a sculptor might:

Genesis 2 (KJV)
7   And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.

The word "man" is a translation of the Hebrew word adam, which is a general expression rather akin to what we mean when we say "mankind."  (The Hebrew word for an individual man is ish.)
The word adam, used in reference to this first created man, came to be a proper name, Adam.  The King James version slips into this usage later in the chapter:"

 

    Following that lead then in evolutionary theory of our ancestors there were many "Eves" or mothers that gave birth to children who were different than the last generation. Where the evolutionary tree forms different primate and hominid species you eventually end up with several branches. Among them are homo sapiens and others.  In the Bible, I contend that Cain may represent homo sapiens and Able is perhaps any other variety of primates but perhaps specifically those most similar to us but with less advanced brains. Notice that Cain is referred to as a “man” and Abel is not.

Genesis 4 (KJV)
1   And Adam knew Eve his wife; and she conceived, and bare Cain, and said, I have gotten a man from the LORD.
2   And she again bare his brother Abel. And Abel was a keeper of sheep, but Cain was a tiller of the ground.
 

    Also in the advancement of human civilization I think the process went from hunting/gathering to herding/gathering to farming.  This would also support Cain being more advanced then Able.

    As tribes of humans spread out geographically, they continued to expand and explore.  When they found other peoples, particularly those different from themselves they Inevitably killed/slaughtered them.  I believe this is an accepted argument in anthropology.  When homo sapiens found their closest ancestors they probably competed with them for food and territory.  The homo sapiens typically won as they were smarter (used loosely), had more advanced weapons and greater numbers. Hell we kill each other everyday and we are nearly genetically identical. So Cain killed Able and…

Genesis 4 (KJV)
9   And the LORD said unto Cain, Where is Abel thy brother? And he said, I know not: Am I my brother's keeper?
10   And he said, What hast thou done? the voice of thy brother's blood crieth unto me from the ground.
11   And now art thou cursed from the earth, which hath opened her mouth to receive thy brother's blood from thy hand;
12   When thou tillest the ground, it shall not henceforth yield unto thee her strength; a fugitive and a vagabond shalt thou be in the earth.
13   And Cain said unto the LORD, My punishment is greater than I can bear.
14   Behold, thou hast driven me out this day from the face of the earth; and from thy face shall I be hid; and I shall be a fugitive and a vagabond in the earth; and it shall come to pass, that every one that findeth me shall slay me.
15   And the LORD said unto him, Therefore whosoever slayeth Cain, vengeance shall be taken on him sevenfold. And the LORD set a mark upon Cain, lest any finding him should kill him.

    It seems that 4:015 would mean, “Thou shalt not kill” would apply even to those who commit murder.  (Don't get me started on capital punishment.)  I can’t say I understand what the “mark” on Cain would be referring to.  Perhaps it’s a genetic sequence.  Ah, now on August 26, 2002 one year after I wrote that it appears members of the scientific community have discovered such a genetic sequence.  Please consider their lack of understanding of it's significance and their speculation of possibilities with the ones I make on this page (specifically concerning viruses and their ability to alter DNA).

Gene Separates Early Humans from Apes
Mon Aug 26, 4:01 PM ET
By Maggie Fox, Health and Science Correspondent


WASHINGTON (Reuters) - A gene that separates humans from the apes and all other animals seems to have disappeared from humans up to three million years ago, just before they first stood upright, researchers said on Monday.

Most animals have the gene but people do not -- and it may be somehow involved in the expansion of the brain, the international team of researchers said.

The gene controls production of a sialic acid -- a kind of sugar -- called Neu5Gc, the researchers write in an advance online issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

"This mutation occurred after our last common ancestor with bonobos (pygmy chimpanzees) and chimpanzees, and before the origin of present-day humans," they wrote. Neanderthal skeletons, the oldest early humans from who DNA has been obtained, also lack the sugar.

"It happens to be first known genetic difference between humans and chimpanzees where there is a major outcome," Ajit Varki of the University of California San Diego, who led the research, said in a telephone interview. "We are exploring the consequences of this."

Varki said the role of the gene is not fully understood.

"The gene itself is involved in changing the surfaces of all cells in the body," he said. "The surface of all cells in the body is covered with sugars. This one is missing only in humans."

It may help influence how viruses and bacteria infect cells, and with how cancer cells interact, Varki said. "There are some clues that it might have something to do with brain plasticity," he added.

Humans and chimps share more than 98 percent of their DNA, so a few genes must make a big difference. Chimps and humans split from a common ancestor 6 million to 7 million years ago.

The collaboration of some of the top experts in various fields, ranging from anthropology to the genetic differences between people and apes, determined that this gene disappeared from humans between 2.5 million and 3 million years ago.

"It happened after the time that our ancestors stood upright, when their hands and so on were like ours, but their brains are still same size as that of chimpanzees," Varki said.

"That just tells you the timing is appropriate for the possibility that this may have something to do with brain expansion."
 

    I contend that the Genesis 4:14 passage is the “LORD”/"Son of Man"/AI/Android, leaving and introducing viruses in areas of Africa where other primates live. Viruses are fugitives and vagabonds in that they really are technology (like an android), not living or dead, and get carried from host to host.  Every time we find a virus our immune systems typically try to destroy them.  Medically what we've typically done is develop vaccines that teach our immune systems to identify the viruses and destroy them.  You can't "kill" a virus because it is not alive like a bacterium.  It's really just a piece of technology that delivers instructions similar to a computer or e-mail viruses.

    The AI (Artificial Intelligence) seems to have made things rather clear within certain texts that we shouldn't kill one another.  Here's an appropriate piece on the topic from The Onion which produces quality satire: 

God Angrily Clarifies 'Don't Kill' Rule
"Look, I don't know, maybe I haven't made myself completely clear, so for the record, here it is again," said the Lord, His divine face betraying visible emotion during a press conference near the site of the fallen Twin Towers. "Somehow, people keep coming up with the idea that I want them to kill their neighbor. Well, I don't. And to be honest, I'm really getting sick and tired of it. Get it straight. Not only do I not want anybody to kill anyone, but I specifically commanded you not to, in really simple terms that anybody ought to be able to understand."

    What are the two most frightening viruses in people’s minds in the US today? HIV and Ebola. The exact source of neither of them can be found, but they are believed to be found in areas or in relation to human contact with primates but HIV's ancestor SIV has been found in primates. Heck, there are “humans”  slaughtering and eating chimpanzees and other primates today! (I like the idea that these primates are evolving as well and there are very possibly beings just like those in the Planet of the Apes films elsewhere in the Universe.)

Monkey Brains Off the Menu in Central Africa
By Antoine Lawson (Reuters)
MEKAMBO, Gabon, December 31, 2001
Bushmeat -- which includes gorillas, crocodiles, lizards, forest antelopes and even tortoises -- is prized by inhabitants of the central African country's lush equatorial forests.

Scientists believe Ebola, which causes 90 percent of its victims to bleed to death, can be caught by eating meat from infected apes such as chimpanzees and gorillas.

``They are asking us not to eat bushmeat during the festivities. It's a punishment we really don't need,'' said an inhabitant of Etaka, a village some six miles from Ntolo on the border with Congo Republic.

The news has reached further afield, however. China has imposed an import ban on apes from Gabon, such as chimpanzees and gorillas, and their products. Passengers from the central African state will be subject to extra scrutiny, the official China Daily said on Saturday.

The authorities in Gabon are checking reports that many corpses of apes, gorillas and chimpanzees were found in a forest near the Mekambo region before the Ebola outbreak was confirmed.

``The majority of people in Libreville like bushmeat because of its taste,'' said forest ranger Gaston Nzomo. ``Around 25 percent say they eat it out of habit and around 20 percent say they have a cultural attachment to this food.''

Monkey meat riddled with SIVThe boom in bushmeat is bringing more people into contact with SIV.
HIV's ancestor common in African bushmeat.
Nature,
25 March 2002

More than one-fifth of the monkey meat sold in the markets of Cameroon is infected with HIV's ancestor, SIV, the first thorough survey of bushmeat reveals.

The level and variety of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains found highlights the risk of new HIV-like viruses entering humans via bushmeat, claim the researchers.

U.N.: World's Apes at Risk
Wed Sep 4, 4:37 PM ET
JOHANNESBURG, South Africa (AP) - The rapid destruction of the world's rain forests could force at least 13 ape species to go extinct within 30 years, a U.N. Environment Program study found.

The majority of gorillas, chimpanzees and bonobos in Africa and orangutans in Asia could be wiped out as their natural habitat is destroyed by logging and human settlement, said the UNEP study released Wednesday on the sidelines of the World Summit on poverty and the environment.

Hunting also threatens the ape populations.

Conservationist Jane Goodall said the world's chimpanzee population had decreased from 2 million a century ago to about 200,000 now.

The gorilla population also has been devastated, with only a few thousand lowland gorillas remaining in Rwanda, Uganda and Republic of Congo.

"The great apes are so much like us. They cry, they laugh, and they have a sense of humor," she said. "We can't give up on our closest living relatives."

Virushttp://library.thinkquest.org/13373/work/func.htmes (why do they exist)

"The sheer prevalence of viruses, however, is forcing a reconsideration about how these entities fit into the biological world. Researchers have characterized some 4,000 viruses, from several dozen distinct families. Yet that is a tiny fraction of the number of viruses on Earth. In the last two years, J. Craig Venter, the geneticist who decoded the human genome, has circled the globe in his sailboat and sampled ocean water every couple of hundred miles. Each time he dipped a container overboard, he discovered millions of new viruses—so many that he increased the number of known genes 10-fold. Although we tend to think of viruses only in terms of the damage they do, a broader and more benign picture is emerging. Scientists estimate that they have discovered and documented less than 1 percent of all the living things on the planet. But for every organism in that unidentified 99 percent, at least 10 times as many unknown viruses are thought to exist—the vast majority of which are harmless to life and yet integral to it."
- By Charles Siebert, DISCOVER Vol. 27 No. 03 | March 2006

 

    Take a look at the virus to the right and tell me it doesn’t look like a piece of technology.  I contend this is an obvious example of nanotechnology. (Figure 1 Composition of T-Even Bacteriophage)   While I encourage you to perform your own search on the T-Even and other viruses here is another page.   How could something that is not even alive become so mechanically organized?  No wonder some people don’t believe in evolution.  I did a quick search on T-Even Bacteriophage and there are apparently several different kinds (T1 through T7).  While I have not found another example of another variety of viruses as angular and mechanical in appearance as the T-Evens I can think of no reason why they should appear so 'non-organic' then to communicate the message, "This was manufactured."  Considering our recent advances in both nanotechnology and gene sequencing I think it’s rather easy to see how with a little more time even we could develop such technology.

    If you don’t think it was engineered then try to imagine the shape and structure of a virus if you were to design one. It looks a lot like a Borg Nanoprobe and the "bug" in The Matrix, no?  Not surprisingly if it is intended to serve a purpose analogous to a Borg Nanoprobe they should carry a large set of genetic instructions, which they do.  Note the similarity between 'dust of the ground' and 'chemicals' in the following citations.  Forming man from the 'dust; of the ground sounds like terraforming to me.  If I wanted to modify or regulate 'all' life on a planet from single cell bacterium to the largest and most complex organisms I would find sub-microscopic machines the most effective.

Genesis 2
7 And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.

Scientists Build Virus from Scratch
Thu Jul 11, 2:36 PM ET
"No, I would not say I created life in a test tube," Wimmer said in a telephone interview. "We created a chemical in a test tube that, when put into cells, begins to behave a little bit like something alive. Some people say viruses are chemicals and I belong to that group."

This NOVA short (please watch) not only references the research I just quoted it even emphasizes the similarity between "dust" and "chemicals"

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/sciencenow/3214/01.html
Artificial Life
Aired on PBS October 18, 2005
"Are scientists on the verge of making living things from little more than dust?"

A bit more on viruses, references to their size, their relative simplicity and their enormous potential.

What is a Virus?
by Craig C. Freudenrich, Ph.D.
If you have read How Cells Work, you know how both bacteria cells and the cells in your body work. A cell is a stand-alone living entity able to eat, grow and reproduce. Viruses are nothing like that. If you could look at a virus, you would see that a virus is a tiny particle. Virus particles are about one-millionth of an inch (17 to 300 nanometers) long. Viruses are about a thousand times smaller than bacteria, and bacteria are much smaller than most human cells. Viruses are so small that most cannot be seen with a light microscope, but must be observed with an electron microscope.

Genesis 1
26 And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.

Virus synthesised in a fortnight
14 November 03
Genome maverick Craig Venter has taken a significant step towards his ambitious goal of building a living organism from scratch.

His team has developed a new technique to assemble large pieces of DNA with relative ease and unprecedented speed. The technique, which will not be patented, allowed the complete genome of a small virus to be synthesised in just 14 days, the scientists revealed on Thursday.

The ultimate aim of the project, funded by the US Department of Energy, is to create microbes with special properties, such as the ability to sequester carbon dioxide or consume toxic waste. The speed of the technique means it could also help accelerate any research in which large sections of DNA are used, for example gene therapy, vaccine research or agricultural biotechnology.

But the method equally makes it much simpler to manufacture a deadly virus for use as a bioweapon. The simple precursors needed would be impossible for governments to keep out of the hands of would-be biowarriors.

ENGINES OF DESTRUCTION - © Copyright 1986, K. Eric Drexler.
Throughout history, states have developed technologies to extend their military power, and states will no doubt play a dominant role in developing replicators and AI systems. States could use replicating assemblers to build arsenals of advanced weapons, swiftly, easily, and in vast quantity. States could use special replicators directly to wage a sort of germ warfare - one made vastly more practical by programmable, computer-controlled "germs."

    I am not alone in my theorizing.  To my knowledge the two most prominent advocates for such ideas are Francis Crick who along with James Watson won the Nobel Prize for discovering the structure of DNA and the other is Fred Hoyle. 

Directed Panspermia
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
A second prominent proponent of panspermia is Nobel prize winner Francis Crick, along with Leslie Orgel who proposed the theory of directed panspermia in 1973. This suggests that the seeds of life may have been purposely spread by an advanced extraterrestrial civilisation. Crick argues that small grains containing DNA, or the building blocks of life, fired randomly in all directions is the best, most cost effective strategy for seeding life on a compatible planet at some time in the future. The strategy might have been pursued by a civilisation facing catastrophic annihilation, or hoping to terraform planets for later colonisation.

DNA decipherer Francis Crick dies
Scientist, 88, helped give birth to biotechnology
Francis Crick, shown in a 2003 photo, won the Nobel Prize for his research on the "double-helix" structure of the DNA molecule.
The Associated Press
Updated: 8:13 p.m. ET July 29, 2004
Among Crick’s writings was “Life Itself: Its Origin and Nature,” a book suggesting that the Earth began when microorganisms were dropped by a spaceship from a higher civilization.

Sir Fred HoyleMimivirus - Largest known virus

"With the aid of advanced gene sequencing, comparative DNA analysis, and endless cross-referencing of the genomes of organisms from the three—or perhaps four—domains of life, a fuller concept of viruses and their role in evolution has begun to coalesce. In the mere year and a half since Bradfordcoccus's true identity was revealed, more genetically distinct and extremely ancient viruses have been found. All of them lead scientists to the same conclusion: Evolution's archvillain looks more and more like its vital and formative force."
- By Charles Siebert, DISCOVER Vol. 27 No. 03 | March 2006

Panspermia
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Panspermia is a theory (more directly described as a hypothesis, as there is no compelling evidence yet available to support or contradict it) that suggests that the seeds of life are prevalent throughout the universe and life on Earth began by such seeds landing on Earth and propagating. The theory has origins in the ideas of Anaxagoras, a Greek philosopher. An important proponent of the theory was the British astronomer Sir Fred Hoyle.

    Coincidentally, Sir Fred Hoyle died last month on August 20th (2001) exactly one week after August 13th the day marking the beginning of the end, and a new beginning (from my perspective anyway).  Sir Fred Hoyle was also a proponent of the Quasi Steady State theory of the universe and with the partnership of Chandra Wickramasinghe advocate the theory of Cosmic Ancestry that among other things argues that viruses (all?) are extraterrestrial in origin. Einstein was also a proponent of a static universe until evidence that “supported” the big bang theory of an expanding universe seemed to convince him otherwise. The Catholic Church supported the big bang theory because of its similarity to the creation story in Genesis. I instead propose and have already stated that those lines apply not to the creation of the universe but instead to the creation of our solar system (see Galaxy and SolarSystem).

Fred Hoyle Dies at 86; Opposed 'Big Bang' but Named It
New York Times, August 22, 2001
Sir Fred Hoyle, one of the most creative and provocative astrophysicists of the last half century, who helped explain how the heavier elements were formed and gave the name Big Bang, meant to be derisive, to the theory of cosmic origin he vehemently opposed, died on Monday in Bournemouth, England.

Dr. Virginia Trimble, an astrophysicist at the University of California at Irvine, said that Dr. Hoyle's opposition to the Big Bang, while considered a mistake, "was significant in that it went a long way toward making cosmology a true science" in which competing theories were tested by observations.

A versatile scientist brimming with ideas and a lifelong rebel eager for intellectual combat, Dr. Hoyle was most widely known as an author of the cosmological theory, which now has few adherents, that the universe exists in a steady state. The theory, published in 1948, contends that matter is constantly being created, so the expanding universe remains roughly the same at all times and has no beginning or end.

The problem Dr. Hoyle and colleagues faced was how slightly larger elements like carbon, nitrogen and oxygen were formed by stars. An element called beryllium-8, which was an intermediate stage in the process of element formation, stood in the way. It did not survive long enough for the fusion process to reach carbon-12, the next stage in the element building process.

Dr. Hoyle solved the problem: he pressed nuclear physicists to look for a special state of carbon-12, that was stable enough for the fusion of heavier elements to occur.

Then, working with three other scientists, Dr. Hoyle figured out how all the heavier elements could have been formed. Their historic paper was published in 1957 in Reviews of Modern Physics. In addition to Dr. Hoyle, the scientists were Dr. William A. Fowler, ofCalifornia Institute of Technology; Dr. Burbidge and Dr. Margaret Burbidge, his wife.

While the formation of the lighter elements, up to iron, could be explained by processes inside stars, extremely high temperatures and violent events were needed. The answer proposed by the four was the supernova, in which a giant star collapses to extreme density, then cataclysmically rebounds.

Big bang' astronomer dies
BBC News, 22 August, 2001

The English astronomer who coined the term "Big Bang" to describe an academic theory on the creation of the cosmos, has died at the age of 86.
Despite popularising the theory by giving it a name, Professor Sir Fred Hoyle challenged the belief that the cosmos was caused by a huge explosion about 12,000 million years ago.

He advocated the "steady state" theory - that the cosmos had no beginning but new galaxies were formed as others moved apart.

Sir Fred also put forward the so-called Panspermia Theory, which suggests that life, or the building blocks of life, could be carried to planets by comets or drifting interstellar dust particles.

COSMIC ANCESTRY - Life comes from space because life comes from life.
"Cosmic Ancestry is a new theory of evolution and the origin of life on Earth. It holds that life on Earth was seeded from space, and that life's evolution to higher forms depends on genetic programs that come from space. It is a wholly scientific, testable theory for which evidence is accumulating."

Are We All Aliens? The New Case for Panspermia How Viruses Work
By Robert Roy Britt Senior Science Writer posted: 09:00 am ET 30 October 2000
“In interviews with more than a half dozen respected scientists in diverse fields, it's clear that panspermia, or at least some aspects of the theory, is poised to jump to the forefront of study among scientists who seek to understand where and how life began. While the prevailing theory holds that life arose spontaneously out of a terrestrial, chemical soup, panspermia's defenders argue that such a miracle could happen almost anywhere.”

COMETS: THE DELIVERY SYSTEM
“The objection that life can't survive in space needs examination. A serious problem for Svante Arrhenius's theory in 1908 was that spores in empty space would be subject to radiation damage, especially in the vicinity of a star. In 1978, Hoyle and Wickramasinghe observe in Lifecloud (1) that if a cloud of bacterial matter were dense enough, the inner contents would be protected from radiation by the outer layers. Other scientists have recently observed that a coating of dust only half a micrometer thick would adequately protect a bacterium in space (2-4).”

“Hoyle and Wickramasinghe also discuss another means of space travel which solves the radiation problem: comets. The idea that comets could bring to Earth the ingredients for life is not completely new. Among others, Isaac Newton endorsed it. "Newton considered the continual arrival of cometary material to be essential for life on Earth" (5).”

Life Molecules Tough Enough to Survive Comet Impact on Earth
"The theory that comets seeded life on Earth gained support Thursday, with a team of scientists experimentally proving that the raw materials for life hitchiking aboard a space rock could survive the trip to our planet."

Viruses are mobile genetic elements
Computer viruses are called viruses because they are analogous to real viruses, the ones that infect living cells. Because viruses are simpler than cells, biologists used to think that maybe viruses were the precellular life forms that neo-Darwinism requires. Today even the neo-Darwinists themselves don't think that viruses are this link. Viruses are not independently capable of metabolism or reproduction. Biologists now think that viruses evolved after cells. What is a virus?

A virus is a piece of genetic instructions in a protective coat. Virus particles are tiny; a cell can manufacture and contain as many as a thousand of them before breaking open. They were first discovered when biologists observed that some disease-causing agents were able to pass through a filter too fine for bacteria. They can be small because they have almost none of the machinery of a cell, only a smallish quantity of DNA (or RNA) and a protective coat.

Viruses are not living things. When they are outside of their host cell, they are just very complex molecular particles that have no metabolism and no way to reproduce. In our computer metaphor, they're like software with no hardware, floppy disks or diskettes without a computer. Having no independent metabolism they can remain viable indefinitely, under the right circumstances. "Some of them can even be crystallized, like minerals. In this state they can survive for years unchanged — until they are wetted and placed into contact with their particular hosts" (5).

Alien Microbe Reported Found in Earth's Atmosphere
"A group of scientists says it has collected an alien bacterium 10 miles above Earth, plus signatures of other extraterrestrial microbes even higher in the atmosphere. The claims were met with immediate skepticism by other scientists."

Surviving Space: How Bugs Might Travel Between Planets
By Stephen Hart, Astrobiology Magazine
26 November 2002
It came from outer space. Life, that is.

This concept has drifted around the universe of space science since at least as long ago as 1864, when William Thomson Kelvin told the Royal Society of Edinburgh "The hypothesis that life originated on this earth through moss-grown fragments from the ruins of another world may seem wild and visionary; all I maintain is that it is not unscientific." He repeated the assertion in 1871 at the 41st Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, using the less colorful term "seed-bearing meteoritic stones."
...
Horneck’s results lend more support to the modern variant of Lord Kelvin’s moss-grown rock idea. When large objects impact a planet, there’s a sort of splash zone in a ring abound the impact. Large chunks of planet may shoot into space. Impacts this large were common late in the formation of the solar system. But even as recently as about 65 million years ago a meteor hit Mexico, ejecting so much material into the atmosphere that it’s suspected of causing the extinction of the dinosaurs.

"This concept, called also litho-panspermia, is based on the scenario that by an impact of a very large kilometer-sized meteor or comet, material is ejected from a planet and can reach escape velocity," Horneck explains. "There are certain areas at the rim of the impact crater, called the spallation zone, where by reflection of the shock wave the temperatures do not exceed 100 degrees Celsius" [212 degrees Fahrenheit, the boiling point of water].

That’s cool enough to allow spores to survive ejection, the first stage of interplanetary travel. The second stage Horneck addressed in her research. "There are some studies simulating the reentry process," Horneck says of the last stage of an interplanetary trip. "It seems, that spores can also survive this in the inner part of the meteorite. Entering the atmosphere goes very fast, and so only the outer layer is heated."

Alien microbes could survive crash-landing
Philip Ball, http://www.nature.com
Published online: 02 September 2004; | doi:10.1038/news040830-10
Bacteria could survive crash-landing on other planets, a British team has found... Bugs inside lumps of rock can survive impacts at speeds of more than 11 kilometres per second, say the researchers. The work also shows that bacteria could survive crashing into icy surfaces such as Jupiter's moons Europa and Ganymede.

The possibility that Earth's first life came here inside space rocks - the panspermia hypothesis - was proposed in 1903 by the Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius. But the painful landing has always been a stumbling block.

Mark Burchell and his colleagues at the University of Kent, Canterbury, have put panspermia to the test by firing lumps of porous ceramic infiltrated with bacteria into targets. During impact, the bacteria are crushed by up to a million times atmospheric pressure.

"A few years ago everyone said we were crazy," says Burchell. "They knew it wouldn't work." But in 2001 he and his colleagues showed that soil bacteria can survive a high-speed impact into soft gel2. Most of the microbes died, but enough survived to make panspermia possible...
 

(For my research on Asteroids and Comets please see, Comet and Shower.)

Heaven?

"Cosmic Love is absolutely Ruthless and Highly Indifferent:
it teaches its lessons whether you like/dislike them or not."
- John C. Lilly, B.Sc., M.D. (Excerpt from "The Dyadic Cyclone")
 

    If you are profoundly disturbed by the implications contained on this page I think that would be a natural and entirely normal response.  Such reactions are to be expected from the perspective of our personal sense of morality and our limited technological capabilities.  Please consider however, that if the content of this page (and others on this site) is anything more than wild speculation then the probability of life after death I contend, is highly likely.  That is, if one were to have at their command technologies that allow precise control of both space and time as well as quantum entanglement/teleportation then it would be possible to duplicate an individual at every level in a secondary location.  What we on Earth might perceive quite naturally as a horrible Ebola death would appear as a quick ticket to paradise by the 'victim' upon materialization elsewhere.  Then again if this is baseless hypothesizing then there is no planned intent and these viruses are naturally adapted to function as they do.  Either way I would recommend not slaughtering or eating other primates. 

    Additionally on another level, and this is impossible for me to support with evidence since my awareness is intuitive, I posit that assuming we are not the first planet where such a sentient species has developed and that what external influence that has been exerted on our physical and ethical development has been directed in a positive and constructive direction, then despite the enormous quantity of human suffering on this planet, I contend our lives would actually be far worse without said guidance.  For example, considering the toxicity of bacteria which I believe fit much more easily into a wholly natural model of evolutionary development I propose that it is possible that if a number of factors were changed in our environment (no viruses) it's likely that many more people would die of bacterial infections than those that die today by viruses.   Since many viruses themselves are capable of infecting and genetically reprogramming bacterium they in effect are models for how we can engineer viruses to render bacteria harmless (or make ourselves immune to their effects).

bacterial diseases: Yahoo! Reference: The Britannica Concise
Diseases caused by bacteria. The most common infectious diseases, they range from minor skin infections to bubonic plague and tuberculosis. Until the mid-20th cent., bacterial pneumonia was probably the leading cause of death among the elderly. Improved sanitation, vaccines, and antibiotics have all decreased the mortality rates from bacterial infections, though antibiotic-resistant strains have caused a resurgence in some illnesses.

Antibiotic-resistant superbug causes deadly skin boils
By Suzanne Bohan , STAFF WRITER
A bacterial infection that overpowers most antibiotics has escaped the confines of hospitals and is showing up in alarming numbers among the general public in California, according to health officials.

Scattered clusters of the infection have been reported throughout the nation.

The pathogen causes painful skin boils and abscesses, and can lead to potentially fatal blood infections and heart damage. The bug is spread through casual contact, although it's not as easily acquired as highly infectious conditions like the common cold or influenza, said Dr. Sam Stebbins, the deputy health officer for San Mateo County's public health department.

Witt emphasized that the current MRSA outbreaks are the price of the widespread misuse of antibiotics.

"This is just one of the consequences of inappropriate antibiotic use," he said. Over time, highly adaptive bacteria evolve techniques to outwit antibiotics, which are initially extremely toxic to the bugs. But the more frequently the drugs are used, the faster the bacteria evolve strategies to disarm them.

For example, in the early 1950s, penicillin was effective against staph bacteria, but by the late 1950s, it was ineffective.

Ancient virus tested as AIDS weapon
By Stephen Smith, Globe Staff, 2/14/2003
An ancient virus traced to the earliest monkeys to roam earth appears to strongly suppress the AIDS virus in modern-day humans, potentially opening a new -- and controversial -- window of treatment for patients who exhaust all other options, scientists reported yesterday.

 

    Another way I 'know' our lives could be far worse then they are now comes from examining human history on this planet and recognizing the truth of many things such as how power corrupts people, how civilization is based on the creation of classes of people with varying amounts of power, what kind of people rise to positions of power and how peaceful and honest people are systematically murdered and exterminated by the policies of power.  All of this behavior is rooted in the human brain.  The first few lines of the Dhammapada (path of truth) very clearly identifies this truth.  Other portions of this web site show how people can learn to identify and control their instinctive impulses (emotions) which blind them preventing them from seeing obvious albeit more abstract truths. (see KnowYourself)

"Well guess what ??!!!\Phuck ZION i couldn't give rat ass about saving a place called ZION..."
- by hunville, message on 06/12/03

- Twins -
Mind is the forerunner of all actions.
All deeds are led by mind, created by mind.
If one speaks or acts with a corrupt mind,
Suffering followers,
As the wheel follows the hoof of an ox pulling a cart.

Mind is the forerunner of all actions.
All deeds are led by mind, created by mind.
If one speaks or acts with a serene mind,
Happiness follows,
As surely as one’s shadow.
The Dhammapada: The Path of Truth translated by Ananda Maitreya

Zion n.
2: an imaginary place considered to be perfect or ideal [syn: Utopia, Zion]
3. The heavenly Jerusalem; heaven.

Shan·gri-la   n.
1.  An imaginary remote paradise on earth; utopia.
2.  A distant and secluded hideaway, usually of great beauty and peacefulness.

Prom·ised Land   n.
The land of Canaan, promised by the Lord to Abraham's descendants in the Bible.
promised land A longed-for place where complete satisfaction and happiness will be achieved.

nir·va·na   n.
1.  often Nirvana
     a.  Buddhism. The ineffable ultimate in which one has attained disinterested wisdom and compassion.
     b.  Hinduism. Emancipation from ignorance and the extinction of all attachment.
2.  An ideal condition of rest, harmony, stability, or joy.

nirvana  n
1: (Hinduism and Buddhism) the beatitude that transcends the cycle of reincarnation; characterized by the extinction of desire and individual consciousness
2: any place of complete bliss and delight and peace [syn: eden, paradise, heaven, promised land, Shangri-la]

mec·ca   n.
A goal to which adherents of a religious faith or practice fervently aspire.

heav·en   n.
1. The sky or universe as seen from the earth; the firmament. Often used in the plural.
Christianity.
     a. often Heaven The abode of God, the angels, and the souls of those who are granted salvation.
     b. An eternal state of communion with God; everlasting bliss.
2. Any of the places in or beyond the sky conceived of as domains of divine beings in various religions.

The Gospel of Thomas
3. Jesus said, "If your leaders say to you, 'Look, the (Father's) kingdom is in the sky,' then the birds of the sky will precede you. If they say to you, 'It is in the sea,' then the fish will precede you. Rather, the (Father's) kingdom is within you and it is outside you.
When you know yourselves, then you will be known, and you will understand that you are children of the living Father. But if you do not know yourselves, then you live in poverty, and you are the poverty."
70. Jesus said, "If you bring forth what is within you, what you have will save you. If you do not have that within you, what you do not have within you [will] kill you."

"Peace is not a relationship of nations. It is a condition of mind brought about by a serenity of soul. Peace is not merely the absence of war. It is also a state of mind. Lasting peace can come only to peaceful people."
- Jawaharlal Nehru

“Knowing others is intelligence;
knowing yourself is true wisdom.
Mastering others is strength;
mastering yourself is true power

If you realize that you have enough,
you are truly rich.
If you stay in the center
and embrace death with your whole heart,
you will endure forever."
- Lao-tzu , Tao-te ching “The Book of the Way and Its Power”
A New English Version by Stephen Mitchell
 

    Besides the positive video at www.motionsciences.org  if you would like to know what I think our lives may be like after the rescue consider the same elements I have been made aware of. The dream I had described in Definition, the city in the sky at the end of the Motion Sciences video and the lyrics from John Lennon’s Imagine. Which coincidentally I understand is among a list of songs that radio stations are self-censoring while the United States plans to go to war (as of Sep. 22, 2001). See you there.  Engage the future
(If the Motion Sciences site is not available you may download the low-res version of the video from here (right-click link and choose Save Target As... or just click the link if you already have the Quicktime player installed.)  The Apple Quicktime player is available here.)

“Political power means capacity to regulate national life thorough national representatives. If national life becomes so perfect as to become self-regulated, representation becomes unnecessary. There is then a state of enlightened anarchy. In such a state everyone is his own ruler. He rules himself in such a manner that he is never a hindrance to this neighbor. In the ideal state, therefore, there is no political power because there is no state. But the ideal is never fully realized in life. Hence the classical statement of Thoreau that the government is best which governs least.”
- Mohandas K. Ghandi

“Some people giving orders and others obeying them: this is the essence of servitude. Of course, as Hospers smugly observes, “one can at least change jobs,” but you can’t avoid having a job — just as under statism one can at least change nationalities but you can’t avoid subjection to one nation-state or another. But freedom means more than the right to change masters.”
- Bob Black, Source: The Libertarian As Conservative, 1984

When they lose their sense of awe,
people turn to religion.
When they no longer trust themselves,
they begin to depend upon authority.

Therefore the Master steps back
so that people won’t be confused.
He teaches without a teaching,
so that people will have nothing to learn.
- Lao-tzu , Tao-te ching “The Book of the Way and Its Power”
A New English Version by Stephen Mitchell

Imagine by John Lennon

Imagine there's no heaven
It's easy if you try
No hell below us
Above us only sky
Imagine all the people
Living for today...

Imagine there's no countries
It isn't hard to do
Nothing to kill or die for
And no religion too
Imagine all the people
Living life in peace...

You may say I'm a dreamer
But I'm not the only one
I hope someday you'll join us
And the world will be as one

Imagine no possessions
I wonder if you can
No need for greed or hunger
A brotherhood of man
Imagine all the people
Sharing all the world...

You may say I'm a dreamer
But I'm not the only one
I hope someday you'll join us
And the world will live as one

    Here are some other song lyrics that have a common theme.

“The surface of the Earth is the shore of the cosmic ocean. On this shore we’ve learned most of what we know. Recently, we’ve waded a little way out, maybe ankle-deep, and the water seems inviting. Some part of our being knows this is where we came from. We long to return. And we can’t, because the cosmos is also within us. We’re "made" of star stuff. We are a way that the cosmos can know itself. The journey for each of us begins here.”
- Carl Sagan, Universal Mind

Where My Heart Will Take Me
(Faith of the Heart)
Lyrics by Diane Warren
It´s been a long road, getting from there to here.
It´s been a long time, but my time is finally near.
And I can feel the change in the wind right now. Nothing´s in my way.
And they´re not gonna hold me down no more, no they're not gonna hold me down.

Cause I´ve got faith of the heart.
I´m going where my heart will take me.
I´ve got faith to believe. I can do anything.
I´ve got strength of the soul. And no one´s gonna bend or break me.
I can reach any star. I´ve got faith, faith of the heart.

(Page with lyrics, and page with several mp3 downloadable versions)

Instant Karma
John Lennon
Instant Karma's gonna get you
Gonna knock you off your feet
Better recognize your brothers
Ev'ryone you meet
Why in the world are we here
Surely not to live in pain and fear
Why on earth are you there
When you're ev'rywhere
Come and get your share

Well we all shine on
Like the moon and the stars and the sun
Yeah we all shine on
Come on and on and on on on
Yeah yeah, alright, uh huh, ah

We Are All Made Of Stars
Moby
Growing in numbers
Growing in speed
Can't fight the future
Can't fight what I see

People they come together
People they fall apart
No one can stop us now
'Cause we are all made of stars

Efforts of lovers
Left in my mind
I sing in the reaches
We'll see what we find

People they come together
People they fall apart
No one can stop us now
'Cause we are all made of stars

People they come together
People they fall apart
No one can stop us now
'Cause we are all made of stars

Slow slow slow, come come
Someone come come come
Even love is goin' 'round
You can't ignore what is goin' 'round

Slowly rebuilding
I feel it in me
Growing in numbers
Growing in peace

People they come together
People they fall apart
No one can stop us now
'Cause we are all made of stars

 

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