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“...Will matter then be destroyed or not?
The Savior said, All nature, all formations, all creatures exist in and with
one another, and they will be resolved again into their own roots.
For the nature of matter is resolved into the roots of its own nature alone.
He who has ears to hear, let him hear.
Matter gave birth to a passion that has no equal, which proceeded from
something contrary to nature. Then there arises a disturbance in its whole
That is why I said to you, Be of good courage, and if you are discouraged be
encouraged in the presence of the different forms of nature.
He who has ears to hear, let him hear.”
- The Gospel According to Mary, Chapter 4, first
century, Nag Hammadi Library,
Not long ago, maybe 10 years, Black holes were only a very
strange theoretical idea. On September 5, 2001 it was reported that the Chandra
X-ray Observatory found the first direct evidence of a supermassive black hole
in the center of our Galaxy. It is important to note that the article indicates
the distance between Earth and the center is 24,000 light years.
"This is extremely exciting because it's the first time
we have seen our own neighborhood supermassive black hole devour a chunk of
material," said Fred Bagonoff, who with colleagues will publish their findings
in the Thursday edition of the journal Nature.”
“Astronomers theorize that most galactic cores have black holes, stars so
massive that they collapsed into themselves, producing gravitational monsters
from which nothing can escape, even light.”
“Circumstantial evidence had hinted that the Milky Way boasted a black hole in
its center, about 24,000 light-years from Earth. But astronomers had not been
able to rule out another possibility, a dense cluster of dark stars.”
“Until the Chandra X-ray Observatory, a NASA satellite that for two years has
hunted black holes and other exotic energy phenomena, observed an X-ray flare
dim and brighten for a period of only ten minutes.”
“From this particular flash, Chandra researchers calculated that the mass at
the center of the galaxy, about 2.6 million times that of the sun, fit
into a space no larger than 93 million miles across. Only a black hole
could be that dense, according to the known laws of physics.”
- Richard Stenger, September 5, 2001, Milky Way black hole
In the past few years thanks to the Hubble Space telescope,
astronomers have found evidence that supermassive black holes exist in the
centers of many galaxies. These findings have forced astrophysicists to
reformulate their theories of galaxy formation to include the functional purpose
of these ‘monsters’. Here is a two year old article asking if these black holes
are somehow instead of being monsters, the ‘mothers’ of the universe.
"Black holes aren't exactly the celestial darlings of
our universe. They're commonly thought of as giant space vacuums slowly and
methodically sucking the universe dry. But these monsters of destruction may
not be so monstrous after all. New research that identifies three new
supermassive black holes - bringing the grand total so far to 20 - adds
credence to the theory that massive black holes are also intricately related
to the creation and evolution of galaxies. Maybe, without black holes, we
wouldn't even be here."
"The 15-member research team has found evidence that bigger galaxies have
bigger black holes, and that every galaxy (with a spheroidal distribution of
stars) has a central massive black hole. That leads the astronomers to believe
that somehow the formation of a giant black hole and the galaxy it resides in
are closely related to each other. (There are two mass ranges of black holes,
those that have a mass of about 10 or 20 solar masses - one solar mass being
equivalent to the mass of the Sun - and the giant black holes that the
research team is studying, which are between a million and a few billion solar
- Cynthia Reynolds, January 13, 2000, EXN.ca is Discovery
Channel Canada’s Website, Black holes: mothers of the Universe?,
As argued by Einstein’s theory of General Relativity which
helps to explain gravity and how the ‘fabric’ of space-time may be warped or
curved, I submit that recently discovered evidence of Black hole observations
support my claim that our solar system is contained within a galactic sized
distortion of space-time. (And Earth and the other planets are also ‘in’ one
created by the sun.)
The following article discusses observations of two bright
areas of stars orbiting the black hole in the galaxy Andromeda (M31). As my
theory would predict, the orbital velocity of stars should slow the further they
move away from the center of the galaxy and accelerate the closer they get. In
the article this is exactly what is observed while watching stars that are
‘apparently’ among stars that comprise part of the core. I contend that while it
is easier to watch this phenomenon for stars whose orbits are relatively small,
the same effect holds true for stars ‘much’ further from the center. Of course
stars much further away from the center would not be as effected by their mutual
attraction as those very near the center, due to the lower population density.
“But as past observations have suggested, Andromeda has
two points of brightness at its center. Statler and his colleagues used the
Hubble’s Faint Object Camera to record the spectrum of the two nuclei. A
spectrum, unlike a direct picture, splits the light into its component colors.
Using this information, the astronomers were able to map the orbital motions
of the stars around the center.”
“Their findings, published in the February issue of The Astronomical Journal,
support a model that suggests stars in Andromeda are orbiting the galaxy’s
black hole in a lopsided path and are piling up -- sort of a cosmic traffic
jam -- at the section of the orbit that is farthest away from the black hole.”
“When stars swing closer to the center, they go faster. When they move away
from it, they go slower. It’s almost like you’re getting a traffic jam at the
slow section of the orbit,” Statler says. “One of the bright spots in the
nucleus would be the area where the stars are piling up, and the other marks
where they rush through on their closest approach to the black hole.”
- Report on the work of Thomas Statler, 3/3/99, RESEARCHERS
OBTAIN CLEAREST VIEW OF NEARBY GALAXY’S CORE,
In the article Statler has trouble explaining how the stars’
orbits are arranged in such a lopsided way. I contend that the bright spot on
the side furthest from the center is due to the slower orbital velocity
resulting in clustering (like when a bunch of kids run around the corner of a
building). Where the article mentions Statler’s idea that the other area of
brightness closest to the black hole may be due to a specific ‘cluster’ of stars
it’s also noted that he has data that challenges that idea. I contend the
brightness is certainly not entirely due to star clustering as it is on the
other end but instead is largely due to coronal ‘shedding’ or novae.
Through further study of Black holes, fundamental and direct
relationships have been found to exist between the mass of the objects and all
of the other material within their galaxy. This is an extremely important
set of findings.
“Though this secret relationship between a black hole
and its host galaxy has been suspected for the past several years, it is
bolstered by the Hubble discovery of 10 more supermassive black holes in
galaxy centers, raising the total to more than 30 black holes now available
for study. "For the first time we can put strong constraints on the
relationship between galaxy formation and black hole formation and growth,"
“The results now show a close relationship between the black hole mass and the
stars that comprise an elliptical galaxy or the central bulge stars of a
spiral galaxy. But surprisingly, an even tighter correlation is found. "Other
observations of the entire stellar mass of the bulge show a very tight
relationship between a black hole's mass and the depth of the gravitational
potential well as measured by the magnitude of random velocities of stars in
the galaxy's hub. This bolsters the conclusion that the mass correlation is
real," says Gebhardt.”
- SPACE TELESCOPE SCIENCE INSTITUTE PHOTO RELEASE, Posted: June
5, 2000, Black hole survey sheds light on galaxy formation,
In the center of our Galaxy exists the combined mass of a
supermassive black hole, 100 billion stars, gas and dust. The most important
thing to note in this article is the realization that this new evidence defies
prior theoretical predictions as to how far the event horizon should be from the
black hole and how far away matter orbits the ‘hole’.
“Separately, in the Sept. 8, 2001 (vol. 160, #10) issue
of Science News (offline) is an article about a recently measured X-ray/radio
flare-up of the super massive black hole at the center of the galaxy. The
measurements, were for the first time, able to pinpoint the location of this
black hole to high precision. Investigators have reported that nearby orbiting
stars indicate that the event horizon is 30,000 times larger than it is
supposed to be for the measured black hole mass as predicted by current
theory. And the nearby orbiting matter is 1,500 times farther away from the
event horizon than it should be as predicted by current theory.”
- E-mail by
Joe Firmage of Motion Sciences, December 17, 2001 republished at
The super massive black hole in the center of our Galaxy (and
most galaxies) is not the only kind of black hole we are aware of and can learn
from. The black hole and its ‘lunch’ companion now passing over our solar system
provides evidence that matter swirling around the black hole is ‘much’ farther
away than expected.
“Observations from four spacecraft have identified the
inner edge of a spinning disk of material around a black hole about 5,000
light-years from Earth. The surprising results show that the disk is much
farther from the black hole than astronomers expected.”
- Vanessa Thomas, 5/13/2001, Black Hole Accretion Disk Keeps
It seems to me that the physical evidence discovered from
these two black hole studies as well as the relationship of black hole mass and
galaxy mass significantly challenges traditional theories of black hole
gravitational effects and space-time distortions. It’s my opinion that those
theories should be altered to incorporate a quantum theory of gravity, and
include the gravitational effect of the combined mass of the black hole, 100
billion stars, gas and dust in an attempt to explain how stars even at the outer
‘rims’ of spiral galaxies are contained within and do not ‘spin out’ beyond the
galactic core’s influence. Actually I think the chart above ‘visually’ explains
quite a bit about the effects.
Not surprisingly, these new and theory busting discoveries have forced
astrophysicists and astronomers to reconsider galaxy formation. The following
recently published article contains references to research and conclusions that
directly supports my theory of the dimensions of the space-time distortion in
which our solar system is traveling. NB. I disagree with the article’s claim
that we are 27,000 light years from the center. I have already noted the various
claims that the distance is in dispute and measurements range from 24,000 to
30,000. At this rate of discovery which will only be accelerated by the March
2002 upgrade to the Hubble telescope I anticipate several groups in different
countries will reach the same conclusions I am proposing very soon. Note the
evidence that the Galaxies Corona is hot, "It probably has a temperature in
excess of 1 million degrees (Fahrenheit)." Wouldn’t this source of energy and
heat provide a more plausible explanation for the cosmic background radiation?
Particularly in light of the fact that this energy appears to be contained
within the gravitational boundaries of the Galaxy.
After a decade when other astronomical targets got more
attention, the Milky Way has come back into vogue as a hot research subject in
the new millennium, leading to a whole new picture of how the galaxy formed, how
unimaginably huge it is, and what it looks like from afar.
"There's been a renaissance in studying the Milky Way," says Steven
Majewski, an astronomer at the University of Virginia who specializes in the
structure of the galaxy.
As a result of the newfound interest, astronomers are rapidly unraveling the
Milky Way's mysteries.
What they're learning is that the mighty Milky Way attained some of its girth by
gravitationally dominating many merger transactions, otherwise known as galaxy
gobbling. And surprisingly, our home galaxy was recently found to be surrounded
by an invisible sphere that appears to influence space for well more than
100,000 light-years in all directions.
Majewski says the new interest stems in large part from an incredible
finding in the 1994, when astronomers spotted a nearby galaxy they'd never seen
The Sagittarius dwarf galaxy turned out to be the closest neighbor to our own,
just 75,000 light-years from Earth. Researchers began to suspect the galaxy
was being absorbed by the Milky Way, an idea that got further support in a
study released two weeks ago.
Other evidence of mergers has shown up in the past couple of years in the form
of stellar entrails, small streams of stars that travel in packs throughout the
Milky Way but on paths unrelated to the movement of the rest of the galaxy's
The stars of the Milky Way's main disk span a region of space about 100,000
light-years across, and the thick central bulge is a sphere about 25,000
light-years in diameter. To picture this, think of a typical sci-fi flying
saucer. For decades, this was the official picture of our galaxy. More recently,
a handful of studies have added a sprinkling of stars that live in a sparse halo
outside the main disk.
Then early this year, astronomers made a remarkable announcement: Our
galaxy's influence extends as far as 150,000 light-years in all directions, in
the form of an invisible, gaseous sphere called a corona.
Researchers have known for some years that a corona existed. But its newfound
size is astonishing, says Kenneth Sembach of the Space Telescope Science
Institute, who made the discovery with a team of other researchers using NASA's
"The corona is hot," Sembach told SPACE.com. "It probably has a
temperature in excess of 1 million degrees (Fahrenheit)."
The corona is only sparsely sprinkled with particles, however, and nearly
impossible to detect on its own. Yet when cold, extragalactic clouds of hydrogen
gas fall into the corona, their outer shells become superheated and thus
detectable, Sembach explained. FUSE found several of these clouds racing into
the galaxy at nearly 1 million mph.
- Robert Roy Britt Senior Science Writer, 12 March 2002, The New
Milky Way: Bird's Eye View and Other Fresh Insights,