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(This web page is part of a seven page research paper.  It is recommended that the paper be read in the order it was written.
Please begin here or you can download the entire paper in Acrobat PDF format.)

Earth and the Biosphere
 

"The nature of time is that it inherently moves in an exponential fashion-either geometrically gaining in speed, or, as in the history of your Universe, geometrically slowing down. Time only seems to be linear during those eons in which not much happens. Thus most of the time, the linear passage of time is a reasonable approximation of its passage. But that's not the inherent nature of time.
     Why is this significant? It's not when you're stuck in the eons in which not much happens. But it is of great significance when you find yourself in the “knee of the curve,” those periods in which the exponential nature of the curve of time explodes either inwardly or outwardly. It's like falling into a black hole (in that case, time accelerates exponentially faster as one falls in.”
- Ray Kurzweil, The Law of Time and Chaos, Pp. 10-11, “The Age of Spiritual Machines: When Computers Exceed Human Intelligence”, http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0140282025/qid=1118714155

"Nature shows that with the growth of intelligence comes increased capacity for pain, and it is only with the highest degree of intelligence that suffering reaches its supreme point."
- Arthur Schopenhauer, http://www.ecst.csuchico.edu/~mvaldez/schop.html

    In addition to the evidence I’ve already presented regarding global warming, melting ice caps, amphibian mutation and extinction, and zooplankton destruction there is also substantial evidence for human neurological (evolutionary) changes that support my theory that our solar system is accelerating towards our galactic perigee. For example, there is substantial evidence for the accelerating increase in cognitive potential or general IQ worldwide. Many refer to it as the “Flynn Effect” after the political scientist who noticed the pattern.

“James Flynn, a political scientist working in New Zealand, observed in the 1980's that the scores of different groups of people on standard intelligence tests had consistently augmented over the past decades.”

“Since then, the so-called "Flynn effect" has been confirmed by numerous studies. The same pattern, an average increase of over three IQ points per decade, was found for virtually every type of intelligence test, delivered to virtually every type of group.”

"The increase was highest, 20 points per generation (30 years), in Belgium, Holland and Israel, and lowest, 10 points per generation, in Denmark and Sweden. Although the data are limited, it moreover seems that the increase is accelerating."

“One might expect that the Flynn effect would be more clear for tests that emphasize culture or education. The opposite is true, however: the increase is most striking for tests measuring the ability to recognize abstract, non-verbal patterns. Tests emphasizing traditional school knowledge show much less progress. This means that something more profound than mere accumulation of data is happening inside people's heads. None of the scientists who have studied the effect can offer a simple explanation.”

“For one type of test, Raven's Progressive Matrices, Flynn found data that spanned a complete century. He concluded that someone who scored among the best 10% a hundred years ago, would nowadays be categorized among the 5% weakest. That means that someone who would be considered bright a century ago, should now be considered a moron!”
- Principia Cybernetica Web, Increasing intelligence: the Flynn effect, http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/FLYNNEFF.html


IQ scores are rising so dramatically, say researchers who study intelligence, that a high proportion of people considered average at the turn of the 20th century would be regarded as significantly below average by today's tests.”

"It's a genuine mystery," said John Loehlin, a University of Texas-Austin professor of psychology. "All of the explanations given are probably true, but it's still hard to see how they would account for such a large jump."
- Todd Ackerman, 3/15/1998, Copyright 1998 Houston Chronicle Science Writer, Experts at loss to explain large jump in average IQ, http://www.chron.com/content/chronicle/page1/98/03/16/iq.html


    My explanation for the accelerating rise in standard IQ again is due to Earth’s proximity to the center of the galaxy. I propose that the increase in IQ may be due to an increase in neural cellular density, packing more neurons in a smaller space, and possibly a decrease in the synaptic cleft (the space that neurotransmitters must cross from neuron to neuron). In the following web site it is stated that the synaptic cleft spacing is variable and typically averages, “0.02-0.05 microns wide”. I propose that a statistically significant decrease in average cleft spacing could partially explain the rise in standard IQ.

    I propose this as one possible explanation and I base it as supporting evidence of an accelerating increase in mass and as an analogy of a similar trend in microcircuitry known as Moore’s law. I propose an increase in neural density results in greater electro-chemical efficiency (less resistance). If I remember correctly there are billions of neurons in the human brain and trillions of connections. If you consider the distances between these connections are measured in microns I think that even a ‘very’ small change at that scale can result in measurable differences in cortical efficiency. To prove this hypothesis, obviously quite a bit of study would need to be done in measuring synaptic clefts across the brain of many subjects of several age groups. Only then do I think someone could calculate the rate and find the trend correlation between IQ scores and astrophysics. Again, this explanation is one hypothesis for these natural changes but it’s the best one I have at the moment.

“Figure 11a illustrates the site where information is conveyed from one neuron to the next. At this junction, called the synapse, chemicals are used to transmit the electrical neuronal impulse. The structures (magnification approximately 93,000X) and substances involved in synaptic transmission at a directed synapse are identified, and the sequence of events in chemical transmission are described. A directed synapse is one in which the neurotransmitter release sites and receptor sites are close, but not touching. The cleft or space between these structures is typically 0.02-0.05 microns wide. A greater distance between the site of neurotransmitter release and the site of reception characterizes another type of synapse. In this so-called non-directed synapse, the neurotransmitters are released from variscosities (called "string-of-beads") along a neuron's axon.”
- Athabasca University, 25-Sep-2001 , Advanced Biological Psychology Tutorials, Figure 11a: Synaptic Transmission, http://psych.athabascau.ca/html/Psych402/Biotutorials/11/part1.html


    I propose that there is additional evidence that an increase in brain density is a cause of natural yet unexplained ‘evolutionary’ changes other than IQ. The evidence can be found in the expression of other physiological and neurological processes related to the brain. Among the most alarming of them is the increase in human physical sexual maturation.

“By secreting various hormones, the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland control many normal functions, including sleep, appetite, temperature, sexual maturation, and reproduction. The hypothalamus, located at the base of the brain, is connected by blood vessels to the nearby pituitary gland.”
- WebMD Corporation, 1996-2002, Chapter 9 -- Introduction, http://my.webmd.com/content/asset/yale_lab_tests_chapter_9_introduction.html


There are new guidelines for pediatricians that are guaranteed to shock: girls who start to develop breasts and pubic hair at age six or seven are not necessarily "abnormal" (Kaplowitz, et al., 1999). In fact, by their ninth birthday, 48% of African American girls and 15% of white girls are showing clear signs of puberty.”

“Pediatricians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants examined three to 12-year-old girls between July 1992 and September 1993. Girls were recruited who came for a well-child visit, or for a problem that would routinely require a complete physical.”

“Results found that in their seventh year, 27% of African-American girls and 7% of white girls had begun breast development and/or had pubic hair. Between ages eight and nine, those numbers had increased to 48% of African-American girls and 15% of white girls. Also at age eight, 17% of African-American girls and 2% of white girls had axillary hair.”

“Menarche occurred in the girls’ eleventh year for 28% of African-American girls and 13% of white girls. At age 12, 62% of African-American girls and 35% of white girls had begun menstruating. For white girls in the US, the age of first menstruation has remained stable over the past 45 years. In African-American girls, age at menarche has declined by about 6 months in the past 20 to 30 years. The authors felt that the change in age at menarche in African-American girls may be due to their coming closer to achieving optimal nutritional and health status.”

“Girls in this study were taller and heavier than in the first and second National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES, which occurred more than 20 years ago), especially the older girls. Girls in the study who had one or more secondary sexual characteristic were larger and heavier than girls who had not begun puberty. A 1994 report on the National Growth and Health Study found a similar increase in the height and weight of nine and 10-year-old African-American and white girls compared to results from previous NHANES studies.”

“The mean onset age for breast development was 8.9 years for African-American girls and 10.0 for white girls. Pubic hair onset began at age 8.8 for African-American girls and 10.5 for white girls. Axillary hair appeared at the average age of 10.1 in African-American girls and 11.8 in white girls. All of the characteristics emerged significantly earlier in African-American girls both with and without controlling for height and weight.”
- Diana Zuckerman, Winter 2001, When Little Girls Become Women: Early Onset of Puberty in Girls, http://www.cpr4womenandfamilies.org/children11.html


    While the trend was first observed in females it was also found in males when subsequently studied. Because these changes have been so dramatic, the acceleration so pronounced and the possible causes so poorly understood, they are typically considered abnormalities that need to be corrected, as was the case initially for early menarche.

“Recent research has shown girls in the US may be starting puberty at an earlier age than in generations past, and a new study now suggests the same is true of boys.”

“Looking at data on more than 2,100 US boys and teens, researchers found evidence that males growing up in the 1980s and 1990s reached puberty sooner than those growing up in earlier years.”

“Dr. Marcia E. Herman-Giddens of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill--who, with her colleagues, reported the first evidence that US girls are maturing at ever more tender ages--led the new study on boys.”

“The researchers used data from a national health and nutrition survey collected between 1988 and 1994. They looked at the onset of pubic hair growth and genital maturation among 2,114 males aged 8 to 19.”

“The team found that, on average, white boys showed pubic hair development at age 12, Mexican American boys just past age 12 and black boys just beyond age 11. And African Americans were age 9.5, on average, when they showed testicle growth and other signs of genital maturation. White and Mexican-American boys were just past their 10th birthdays.”

“Overall, Herman-Giddens said, these boys began maturing at a younger age compared with boys in studies past. In a statement, she said the findings suggest US boys are now beginning puberty up to 6 months sooner. This echoes the findings from her 1997 study showing US girls--especially African Americans--may be maturing earlier than in the past.”

“An editorial accompanying the report notes the "dramatic difference" in puberty onset found in this study compared with previous ones.”

“Most evidence indicates that boys should begin genital maturation by age 14, according to Dr. Edward O. Reiter of Tufts University in Boston, Massachusetts, and Dr. Peter A. Lee of Hershey, Pennsylvania.”

“But based on these findings, the editorialists note, anywhere from 27% to 38% of US boys hit this milestone at age 8.”
- Reuters Health, Sep. 13, 2001, NEW YORK, US boys may be hitting puberty sooner: report, http://www.drbobmartin.com/2001k_09_13news02.html


    Several possible contributing factors have been proposed to explain the trend, from obesity, to fetal chemical exposure to consumption of hormones in dairy products. While each of these explanations may explain some aspects of physical development I contend that even combined they fail to explain the rate, the worldwide prevalence or the fact that the subjects appear to be physically healthy. For each of the causal factors proposed I think it can be demonstrated that they are ‘not’ found in every country. On the other hand my theory accounts for the possible cause, the global nature, the rate of change and the fact those affected are physically healthy. The following articles don’t provide the same quality of evidence that the two prior articles do but they are evidence that the phenomenon is worldwide.

Europe

“Previous recent estimates from a number of European countries suggest that the mean age of menarche is declining, and was approaching 13y in the early 1980s. Even a conservatively corrected estimate from our data is less than 13.0y. [USA figures are said to be stable but already average less than 13y.]”

“We cannot conclude with complete certainty that the estimate from this work is significantly lower than the other estimates from recent decades. Nonetheless, the data are very suggestive of a further fall in the mean age of menarche since the 1980s. Confirmation from an older sample and/or longitudinal study would add to our confidence in the data.”
- Schools Health Education Unit (UK), Press release: Early onset of puberty raises questions for teachers and parents, http://www.sheu.org.uk/pubs/puberty.htm

Taiwan

Height and Weight Change Across Menarche of Schoolgirls With Early Menarche
“Design: Nine hundred five fourth grade school girls were identified as a closed cohort from the first semester of 1993 for the observational study of the onset of menarche and its predictive factors.”
- Shu-Hui Chang, PhD; Shinn-Jia Tzeng, MS; Jung-Yu Cheng, BS; Wei-Chu Chie, MD, PhD , December 9, 1999, Height and Weight Change Across Menarche of Schoolgirls With Early Menarche, http://archpedi.ama-assn.org/issues/v154n9/abs/poa90351.html

Nigeria

“The project, which has a three-month implementation time frame, was in response to the decline in the age at menarche, early sexual debut by adolescents and high prevalence of HIV/AIDS among adolescents and youths aged 15- 24 years. The main goal of the project therefore was to create awareness on HIV/AIDS among early adolescents in primary schools in Osun state in three months through training, information, education and counseling.”
- Life Vanguards Nigeria, Dec 28, 2001 , Early adolescence HIV/AIDS prevention project, http://www.nigeria-aids.org/MsgRead.cfm?ID=386


    From an evolutionary perspective I think it is interesting to note the advantages that both improved IQ and earlier reproductive maturation have for the survival of the species. Following a worldwide cataclysm these two qualities would increase the chances for survival in a highly variable environment that included large amounts of radiation exposure and subsequently high rates of birth defects. It should be obvious from my theory that other animals on the planet would also be effected by increasing neural density. There may in fact be zoological records that support this conclusion particularly for those animals that are part of captive breeding programs.

    In addition to IQ and physical maturation I propose that there are various behavioral ‘disorders’ that have been found to be increasing in the general population and are neurologically based. The three I wish to identify here are Social Anxiety Disorder, Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADD/ADHD, and Asperger Disorder (Syndrome). For each disorder I will cite a brief description of, and a link below it which provides the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistics Manual (DSM-IV) definition.

“Social anxiety is the fear of social situations and the interaction with other people that can automatically bring on feelings of self-consciousness, judgment, evaluation, and criticism. Put another way, social anxiety is the fear and anxiety of being judged and evaluated negatively by other people, leading to feelings of inadequacy, embarrassment, humiliation, and depression. If a person usually becomes anxious in social situations, but seems fine when they are alone, then "social anxiety" may be the problem.”

“Social anxiety disorder (social phobia) is a much more common problem than past estimates have led us to believe. Millions of people all over the world suffer from this devastating and traumatic problem every day of their lives, either from a specific social phobia or from a more generalized social phobia. In the United States, epidemiological studies have recently pegged social anxiety disorder as the third largest psychological disorder in the country.”
- Thomas A. Richards, Ph.D, Copyright 1996-2001, Social Phobia/Social Anxiety Association, The Least Understood Anxiety Disorder, http://www.socialphobia.org/social.html
- TIMOTHY J. BRUCE, PH.D., and SY ATEZAZ SAEED, M.D., November 5, 1999, Social Anxiety Disorder: A Common, Underrecognized Mental Disorder,
http://www.aafp.org/afp/991115ap/2311.html


“Asperger Syndrome or (Asperger's Disorder) is a neurobiological disorder named for a Viennese physician, Hans Asperger, who in 1944 published a paper which described a pattern of behaviors in several young boys who had normal intelligence and language development, but who also exhibited autistic-like behaviors and marked deficiencies in social and communication skills. In spite of the publication of his paper in the 1940's, it wasn't until 1994 that Asperger Syndrome was added to the DSM IV and only in the past few years has AS been recognized by professionals and parents.”

“Individuals with AS can exhibit a variety of characteristics and the disorder can range from mild to severe. Persons with AS show marked deficiencies in social skills, have difficulties with transitions or changes and prefer sameness. They often have obsessive routines and may be preoccupied with a particular subject of interest. They have a great deal of difficulty reading nonverbal cues (body language) and very often the individual with AS has difficulty determining proper body space. Often overly sensitive to sounds, tastes, smells, and sights, the person with AS may prefer soft clothing, certain foods, and be bothered by sounds or lights no one else seems to hear or see. It's important to remember that the person with AS perceives the world very differently. Therefore, many behaviors that seem odd or unusual are due to those neurological differences and not the result of intentional rudeness or bad behavior, and most certainly not the result of "improper parenting".”
- Barbara L. Kirby, Online Asperger Syndrome Information and Support (includes DSM IV criteria), What Is Asperger Syndrome?, http://www.udel.edu/bkirby/asperger/aswhatisit.html#DSM


“Attention Deficit Disorder, or ADD/ADHD, is a psychological term applied to anyone who meets the DSM IV diagnostic criteria for impulsivity, hyperactivity and/or inattention. The diagnostic criteria are subjective and include behavior which might be caused by a wide variety of factors, ranging from brain defects to allergies to giftedness. ADD is really more of a description rather than a specific disease. However, there is a tendency for people to over-simplify ADD and view it as a singular defect or disease. Not true!”

There are two major types of ADD at this time (this aspect of ADD keeps evolving): ADD with hyperactivity (the traditional type of ADD) and ADD without hyperactivity ("inattentive" type). Here are the DSM IV diagnostic criteria in a condensed form:

Inattention (must meet six of the following to a degree that is "maladaptive"):

bulletOften fails to give close attention to details or makes mistakes in schoolwork;
bulletdifficulty sustaining attention in tasks;
bulletseems not to listen;
bulletfails to follow instructions or finish work;
bulletunorganized;
bulletdifficulties with schoolwork or homework;
bulletloses things like school assignments, books, tools, etc.;
bulleteasily distracted;
bulletforgetful about daily activities.

ADD with Hyperactivity (must meet six of the following to a degree that is "maladaptive"):

bulletfidgety in a squirmy sense;
bulletdoesn't stay seated;
bulletruns or climbs excessively (or feelings of restlessness in older children);
bulletdifficulty playing quietly;
bulletoften "on the go" or acts if "driven by a motor";
bulletoften talks excessively;
bulletblurts out answers to questions;
bulletdifficulty waiting in lines or waiting turns;
bulletoften interrupts or intrudes on others.
- Teresa Gallagher, quoted Feb. 2002, Born to Explore, What is ADD?, http://borntoexplore.org/whatisadd.htm
- TCAMS.ORG ,Copyright 2000, Criteria for Attention Deficit (ADHD) Hyperactivity Disorder - 314.01, http://www.voyager.net/tcams/adhd.htm


    It is my contention that these behaviors are intrinsically considered ‘disorders’ because of societal expectations of individual ‘normalcy’ (by generally unhealthy societies), the fact that individuals have specific cognitive preferences that put them in a statistical minority is not commonly understood, and these physiologically based preferences are being amplified by the physical neurological changes I have already attempted to explain.

    To present an explanation for why there are societal expectations of ‘normal’ that are not only culturally prolific but also exist within institutions such as the American Psychiatric Association I propose that it is not generally known that ‘normal’ physiological cognitive functional differences exist. Not only do they exist but natural preferences are not distributed evenly across populations. The functions I am speaking of were identified by Carl Gustav Jung a Swiss Psychoanalyst and were published in 1921 in a book called, Psychological Types. The four functions as described by Jung are Thinking, Feeling, Sensing and Intuition. Jung identified that individuals were also often either Extroverted (gregarious) or Introverted (reflective).

    While Jungian personality theory is popular in many places, American Psychiatry is unfortunately not one of them. This is significant because in the past few years neuroscience has identified the structures that explain these natural preferences. Consequently all of the DSM’s behavioral criteria used in the identification of a ‘disorder’ are fundamentally flawed because they don’t incorporate these demonstrable facts in their criteria.

    These facts incorporate empirical evidence that each of the functions that Jung identified are localized to ‘quadrants’ of brain, how these functions are used is regulated by the Reticular Activating System (RAS), why a person’s natural lead preference is determined by relative cortical efficiency in the consumption of oxygen and glucose, and why a person’s least developed cognitive function is determined by how the quadrants are ‘wired’ to each other.

R.A.S. - Reticular Activating System
“The Reticular Activating System, located in the core of the brain stem and linked directly to the Frontal Lobes by a substantial conduit of neurons, functions to regulate our arousal -- that is, the degree and quality of our sleep, REM, or wakefulness.”

“Understanding the role of the reticular activating system in human "thinking" is important to fully appreciating Dr. Jung’s and Dr. Benziger’s work. There are three distinct ways in which understanding the functioning of our R.A.S. promotes a deeper appreciation of Jung’s model.”

“First, as the regulator of our stable level of wakefulness, it sets and maintains how much information or stimulation we take in, second per second, while we are awake.”

“Secondly, our R.A.S. when affected by anxiety or our fight-or-flight response rapidly and temporarily increases our arousal level. This enables us to be suddenly and fully alert, seeing much more than we normally see, noticing much more than we normally notice, when we are in danger. It prepares us to successfully respond to danger.”

“Finally, as a major communication link between our Frontal Lobes and our energy reserves in the brain stem, our R.A.S. makes it possible for us to obtain additional energy to focus our attention when, directed to do so by our Frontal Lobes. This direct provision of additional energy to focus on a problem, experienced most powerfully by people with a natural preference in one of the Frontal Lobes – in either Thinking or Intuition - explains how and why Frontal thinkers – with a lead in Thinking or Intuition - tend to be more energetic than Basal thinkers, whose natural lead function is Sensation or Feeling. Frontals are often seen as: fast moving, fast talking, and intense or driven, Type A's - workaholics. Understanding this internal functioning explains why many Frontals are in a real sense addicted to problem solving. What’s more, Frontals actively choose to do problem solving because of this energy high.”

“Given the above, it is possible to understand the following definitions for Extraversion and Introversion as well as to understand their implications for an individual.”

Extraversion
“Having a naturally low level of arousal which causes the individual to seek higher than normal levels of stimulation in order to "feel alive."
Typical ways in which the extravert seeks stimulation include: trying to influence or control his or her environment; confronting others; engaging in competition; attending crowded parties or events "where the action is".”

Introversion
“Having a naturally high level of arousal which causes the individual to seek lower than normal levels of stimulation in order to not feel overwhelmed.”

“Over a period of years, this need to not be overwhelmed by external stimulation develops into an internally focused thinking style which may seem withdrawn, meditative, quiet, or even reclusive to more extraverted persons. Typical ways in which the introvert seeks to control the level of stimulation include: spending time reading, reflecting, or otherwise alone; avoiding or being accommodating to others; competing mostly with oneself or self image; going to small parties or out of the way places.”
- Katherine Benziger, Ph.D., Page updated: 11 January 2000, Articles in Jungian Psychology, The Physiology of TypePart 1, http://www.benziger.org/intro-extra.html


    According to the work of Dr. Richard Haier at UC. Irvine as cited by Katherine Benziger, “Moreover, Haier’s research has shown repeatedly that most people have one area which enjoys a much lower level of electrical resistance – using only one one-hundredth the oxygen / energy - when compared with all the other areas of that person’s cortex.” When you consider relative cortical efficiency with the fact that the human brain comprises about 2% of a person’s weight but even at rest it consumes about 20% of the bodies energy you can begin to understand why such factors play a dominant role in our behavior.

“From the above overview we have learned that:”

  1. “Jung’s four Functions are rooted in four distinct areas of the cortex. Thinking is housed in the Left Frontal Lobe. Intuition is housed in the Right Frontal Lobe. Sensation is housed in the Left Posterior Convexity. Feeling is housed in the Right Posterior Convexity.
  2. Jung’s assertion that each of us has one Natural Lead Function is the result of a neuro-chemical - physiological fact that each person has one area which is 100 times more efficient than their remaining three areas.
  3. Jung’s assertion that each person has two natural auxiliaries can be understood to be the natural result of the brain’s structure. Factually speaking, neuronal bridges hardwire a person’s Natural Lead to their auxiliaries, making communication between their lead and auxiliaries easy, even though each actual auxiliary is relatively speaking highly inefficient.
  4. Jung’s assertion that once a person’s Natural Lead Function has been identified, one can confidently calculate the person’s greatest Natural Weakness, is the result of the simply fact that there are no diagonal bridges in the human brain.
  5. The difference between the Feeling Function and Emotions can be understood more clearly. The Feeling Function is a cortical capacity to recognize the presence or absence of harmony – between colors, tones, or human beings. By contrast, emotions are a limbic capacity to experience delight, anger, fear, grief.
  6. Jung’s belief that Falsification of Type was real possibility is understood to be the natural result of anyone developing and using any of their three inefficient, non-preferred Functions more than their highly efficient Natural Lead Function. What’s more, Jung’s assertion that Falsification of Type can be a serious threat to a person’s physical and mental / emotional health has been validated by the work of Dr. Katherine Benziger and Dr. Arlene Taylor, resulting recently in the profound recognition that Falsification of Type leads dependably to a serious results as defined by PASS.”

“Thus, quite simply, the elements of Jung’s Typology related to the existence and relative organization of four specialized functions or ways of "thinking" is explained.”
- Katherine Benziger, Ph.D., Page updated: 11 January 2000, Articles in Jungian Psychology, The Physiology of TypePart 2, http://www.benziger.org/4function.html


    Here are some descriptions of the four functions in each attitude, Sensing, Feeling, iNtuition, and Thinking. Each cognitive function can be expressed in either an Introverted or Extroverted “attitude”. (Se, Si, Fe, Fi, Ne, Ni, Te and Ti). One book I might recommend on the expression of functions is “Personality Type an Owners Manual” by Lenore Thomson.

Markku Jantunen's Definition of the 8 Functions

Ne is perceiving abstract patterns and connections in
response to stimuli (either in the external world or in the
mind. ) Ne generates new information starting from
something existing. Ne focuses on future possibilities.

Ni is the creation of mental imagery independent of outer
stimuli. Ni generates abstract structural images of a given
problem domain that a person can view from different
points of view at will. Ni focuses on the structure of things
from a timeless point of view.

Se is indiscriminant awareness of the physical
environment. Se prefers to indulge in that which exists in
the present moment.

Si is awareness of concrete forms and categories of
sensory perception. Si interprets stimuli in terms of the
past. Si stores and recalls facts, figures and past
situations.

Te is structuring one's interactions with the external world
in a systematic fashion, based on logical and impersonal
hierarchies and categories.

Ti is judging the validity of perceptions logically. Ti as a
mental process is a collection of threads of thought taking
concepts or percepts apart or pulling them together based
on rules and criteria.

Fe is adapting one's interactions with the external world to
the moods and feelings of others. Fe is sensitive to events
like changes in people's expressions or other such "soft,"
hard-to-quantify conditions in the environment.

Fi is judging perceptions emotionally, based on weight of
evidence. Fi as a mental process is the flow of
judgements on perceptions personal ideals or feeling of
right and wrong. Fi strives for integrity and consistency in
it's ideals. Fi is higher cognitive refinement personal
emotion. Fi enables one to vividly re-experience past
feelings.
 

    I stress that the “Feeling” function is poorly understood (as is iNtuition). This function is used for judging/reasoning. It is not the same as “emotions”. As Benziger pointed out emotions are a product of the limbic system. Instead, ‘Felling’ or as I prefer to call it ‘Subjective Reasoning’ interprets and assigns qualities or values of perceptions based on subjective criteria. For example, if you are near an electrical power generation device that emits a large electromagnetic field and you subjectively experienced (feel) a “tingling” in your stomach, the skin and hair on your arms tingles, a light headedness in your brain and you attempted to interpret these sensations and convey them to someone is this “irrational”? Is it an “emotion”? Of course not, it’s simply difficult to describe to others using objective language. This function is used to discern variances in perceptions and to change your point of view. This function is appropriate for use in the area of ethics, musical and artistic expression as well as fictional literature.

    Today most people understand personality types through a personality test developed by Isabel Briggs Myers. Ms. Myers and her mother used Jung’s theory of personality type and over decades working with psychologists, career counselors and others, developed a testing system to identify the personality traits. The test is referred to as the MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) and the organization, which refines, administers and trains people to administer the test, is the Association for Psychological Type at http://www.aptcentral.org/. When these personality trait “preferences” are combined a dominant “personality type” can be identified. There are consequently 16 base personality types. I recommend the following web site for well written descriptions of each type, http://www.personalitypage.com/portraits.html.

    I wish to emphasize I believe a distinction between ‘personality’ and cognitive functional preference must be maintained in order to resolve various nature/nurture questions. Personality as usually described is a ‘product’ of cognitive function. But of course ‘environment’ influences the development of cognitive functions.

    Here are two tables listing each of the 16 personality types grouped by function/trait. In the first table, next to each type is a percentage of the US population by gender that could be identified as having that personality type as scored by the MBTI. (These percentages are from the MBTI Manuel – A Guide to the Development and Use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Third Edition 1998.) The second table indicates each MBTI personalities’ first four functional preferences in each attitude. While other tables would make it more clear those with a preference for Sensing generally outnumber those with a preference for iNtuition by 3 to 1. With that information in mind, guess which group is more likely to be considered ‘abnormal’?
 

MBTI Notation

 

ST

SF

NF

NT

 

I

ISTJ – F 6.9% M 16.4% ISFJ – F 19.4% M 8.1% INFJ – F 1.6% M 1.3% INTJ – F 0.8% M 3.3%

J

I

ISTP – F 2.4% M 8.5% ISFP – F 9.9% M 7.6% INFP – F 4.6% M 4.1% INTP – F 1.8% M 4.8%

P

E

ESTP – F 3.0% M 5.6% ESFP – F 10.1% M 6.9% ENFP – F 9.7% M 6.4% ENTP – F 2.4% M 4.0%

P

E

ESTJ – F 6.3% M 11.2% ESFJ – F 16.9% M 7.5% ENFJ – F 3.3% M 1.6% ENTJ – F 0.9% M 2.7%

J

Jungian Notation

 

ST

SF

NF

NT

 

I

Si Te Fi Ne (ISTJ) Si Fe Ti Ne (ISFJ) Ni Fe Ti Se (INFJ) Ni Te Fi Se (INTJ)

J

I

Ti Se Ni Fe (ISTP) Fi Se Ni Te (ISFP) Fi Ne Si Te (INFP) Ti Ne Si Fe (INTP)

P

E

Se Ti Fe Ni (ESTP) Se Fi Te Ni (ESFP) Ne Fi Te Si (ENFP) Ne Ti Fe Si (ENTP)

P

E

Te Si Ne Fi (ESTJ) Fe Si Ne Ti (ESFJ) Fe Ni Se Ti (ENFJ) Te Ni Se Fi (ENTJ)

J

- Glen Hendler, August 2001, Functional Notation, http://www.timeenoughforlove.org/Notation.htm


    Making a distinction between the two forms of notation is significant for those who research personality theory. The distinction is important because a person’s personality develops over time. The MBTI system attempts to discern a person’s dominant personality type through preferred ‘behaviors’. In societies with large populations and advanced organizations there tends to be a high degree of individual specialization. As a result people tend to over develop their first two naturally preferred functions and the remaining are too often, very poorly developed. Identifying all four of an individual’s functions by preference and attitude would allow them to become consciously aware of their natural preferences and weaknesses. This is ‘very’ important because most of our thinking (cognitive processing) is done at an ‘unconscious’ level.

    So, if one considers the defining attributes of the cognitive functions in each attitude, the neuro-physiological basis for differentiation, the variability in an individual’s RAS, the various levels of utilization and development of each function which forms the individuals working cognitive matrix, and the evidence of unexplained accelerating IQ then one can see the patterns that emerge in the behaviors for each of the ‘disorders’ I identified. I think most of the subjects diagnosed with Asperger Disorder (Syndrome) would be found to have a 100% more efficient Introverted Thinking (Ti) function and consequently an extremely underdeveloped Feeling (subjective reasoning) function. On the flip-side I think many of those diagnosed with Social Anxiety Disorder are likely to be found to be Introverted Feeling (Fi) dominant and thus a poorly developed objective Thinking (objective reasoning) function. Additional support for this theory can be found in the success of Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CPT).

    The fact that Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADD/ADHD entails a variety of qualifying behaviors is evidence itself that those who define the ‘disorder’ really don’t know what they are dealing with. They have drugs that placate ‘unruly’ children so they have tried to discern common behavioral patterns. The pattern I see between the type 1 “inattentive” children and the type 2 “hyperactive” children lead me to believe that the differences are dominated by extroverted perceiving differences. That is, I think the type 1 children are most likely to be Ne dominant and the type two kids Se dominant. Evidence of this can be found if the children are evaluated on a Jungian basis as evidenced by the “Born to Explore” argument that many of these children excel in similar areas.

    One of the first things I’ve discovered from my own research is that peering eye movement corresponds positionally to the location of the cognitive functions. That is, when someone consciously retrieves a memory, they may for different lengths of time change their eye position in an attempt to “peer” into their mind. That is for Thinking they would peer upper left, for iNtuition they would look upper right, Sensing lower left and Feeling lower right. Here is what that would look like if you were watching someone else’s eyes.

    Sounds dubious? To prove this to yourself try the following, comfortably look up and diagonally to your right and try to describe a place that is very familiar to you like your work office or your bedroom, somewhere where you are not at the present time (sensing details i.e. just physical facts). You will probably not be able to describe more than one or two features comfortably. Now move your eyes lower left and do the same thing. You should find the thoughts flow easily. Now do the opposite, look lower left and describe your ‘future’ plans for your career or a relationship. You should find it nearly impossible. Now look upper right and try again.

    I have also been studying computing for more than twenty years and have held several technical computer related jobs for more than twelve years. From my research I’ve reasoned that many advanced concepts and constructs are actually subconscious projections of our own thought processes and brain structure. I contend these technologies include but are not limited to, hyperlinks, parallel processing, abstraction layers, basic input/output systems, preemptive, multi-tasking, multi-threaded operations, relational databases, neural networks and of course microprocessors.

    I’ve done a bit of research and I believe I’m the first to realize that the high-level CPU functions in the Intel Pentium processor as seen here directly correspond with the human cognitive functions. That is, Sensing = Data, Feeling = Fluidic calculations, Intuition = Prediction and Fetch, and Thinking = Code and Logic. These functions are not only in the same relative positions to each other, it’s also likely that the relative location of the functions is significant. That is, the Introverted functions are closer to the center and the Extroverted functions are further from the center. You can go to the following page of web site where I attempt to equate each of the CPU functions with each cognitive function in each attitude, the ‘four’ language structures and even the RAS represented as the ‘Clock Driver’, http://www.timeenoughforlove.org/CPU.htm
- Image is Intel microprocessor found at Kids Online, Microprocessor, http://www.kids-online.net/learn/clickjr/details/cpu.html


    I attribute the internal (subconscious) perception and development of these technologies primarily to the INTJ personality type. I rest this hypothesis on many factors, but most significant among them are the attributes of the INTJ’s Ni-Te-Fi-Se functional matrix , surveys that indicate such jobs are occupied by a high percentage of INTJs and my own professional experience. It’s also important to note that given time, the development of such technology is an evolutionary eventuality. Without a conscious understanding of one’s own mind the subconscious will dominate thought and express itself.

    I also contend the natural and underdeveloped cognitive matrix of most astronomers, particularly those who excel mathematically is one of the principal reasons why they continually ignored problems like the redshift observations that placed Earth at the center of the Universe. I don’t want to go into a lengthy explanation but much of it concerns the reliance on a highly developed and efficient objective reasoning (Thinking) function and the naturally inferior subjective reasoning (feeling) function that hindered their ability to alter their perspective. Fortunately once we become consciously aware of our shortcomings we can alter our thinking and see the universe in new ways.

We may, appear to be watching the galaxies recede from us and believe ourselves to be stationary, however this is simply our relative view of the universe. For example, a galaxy receding from us at a rate of "x" km/sec would see our galaxy relative to itself moving away also at the same speed of "x" km/sec. Some galaxies do not recede from each other, as their gravitation holds them together as a whole. These groups of galaxies are called "clusters".”

“There is a lot unknown about our expanding universe but there is more and more being discovered every day. Soon we might just know for fact the true story of the universe. “
- Matthew Dolan, © Marc Delehanty 2001, Cosmology Section - Big Bang, http://www.astronomytoday.com/cosmology/bigbang.html

 

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