(This web page is part of a seven page
research paper. It is recommended that the paper be read in the order it
Earth and the Biosphere
|Often fails to give close attention to details or makes mistakes in schoolwork;|
|difficulty sustaining attention in tasks;|
|seems not to listen;|
|fails to follow instructions or finish work;|
|difficulties with schoolwork or homework;|
|loses things like school assignments, books, tools, etc.;|
|forgetful about daily activities.|
ADD with Hyperactivity (must meet six of the following to a degree that is "maladaptive"):
|fidgety in a squirmy sense;|
|doesn't stay seated;|
|runs or climbs excessively (or feelings of restlessness in older children);|
|difficulty playing quietly;|
|often "on the go" or acts if "driven by a motor";|
|often talks excessively;|
|blurts out answers to questions;|
|difficulty waiting in lines or waiting turns;|
|often interrupts or intrudes on others.|
- Teresa Gallagher, quoted Feb. 2002, Born to Explore, What is ADD?, http://borntoexplore.org/whatisadd.htm
- TCAMS.ORG ,Copyright 2000, Criteria for Attention Deficit (ADHD) Hyperactivity Disorder - 314.01, http://www.voyager.net/tcams/adhd.htm
It is my contention that these behaviors are intrinsically considered ‘disorders’ because of societal expectations of individual ‘normalcy’ (by generally unhealthy societies), the fact that individuals have specific cognitive preferences that put them in a statistical minority is not commonly understood, and these physiologically based preferences are being amplified by the physical neurological changes I have already attempted to explain.
To present an explanation for why there are societal expectations of ‘normal’ that are not only culturally prolific but also exist within institutions such as the American Psychiatric Association I propose that it is not generally known that ‘normal’ physiological cognitive functional differences exist. Not only do they exist but natural preferences are not distributed evenly across populations. The functions I am speaking of were identified by Carl Gustav Jung a Swiss Psychoanalyst and were published in 1921 in a book called, Psychological Types. The four functions as described by Jung are Thinking, Feeling, Sensing and Intuition. Jung identified that individuals were also often either Extroverted (gregarious) or Introverted (reflective).
While Jungian personality theory is popular in many places, American Psychiatry is unfortunately not one of them. This is significant because in the past few years neuroscience has identified the structures that explain these natural preferences. Consequently all of the DSM’s behavioral criteria used in the identification of a ‘disorder’ are fundamentally flawed because they don’t incorporate these demonstrable facts in their criteria.
These facts incorporate empirical evidence that each of the functions that Jung identified are localized to ‘quadrants’ of brain, how these functions are used is regulated by the Reticular Activating System (RAS), why a person’s natural lead preference is determined by relative cortical efficiency in the consumption of oxygen and glucose, and why a person’s least developed cognitive function is determined by how the quadrants are ‘wired’ to each other.
R.A.S. - Reticular Activating System
“The Reticular Activating System, located in the core of the brain stem and linked directly to the Frontal Lobes by a substantial conduit of neurons, functions to regulate our arousal -- that is, the degree and quality of our sleep, REM, or wakefulness.”
“Understanding the role of the reticular activating system in human "thinking" is important to fully appreciating Dr. Jung’s and Dr. Benziger’s work. There are three distinct ways in which understanding the functioning of our R.A.S. promotes a deeper appreciation of Jung’s model.”
“First, as the regulator of our stable level of wakefulness, it sets and maintains how much information or stimulation we take in, second per second, while we are awake.”
“Secondly, our R.A.S. when affected by anxiety or our fight-or-flight response rapidly and temporarily increases our arousal level. This enables us to be suddenly and fully alert, seeing much more than we normally see, noticing much more than we normally notice, when we are in danger. It prepares us to successfully respond to danger.”
“Finally, as a major communication link between our Frontal Lobes and our energy reserves in the brain stem, our R.A.S. makes it possible for us to obtain additional energy to focus our attention when, directed to do so by our Frontal Lobes. This direct provision of additional energy to focus on a problem, experienced most powerfully by people with a natural preference in one of the Frontal Lobes – in either Thinking or Intuition - explains how and why Frontal thinkers – with a lead in Thinking or Intuition - tend to be more energetic than Basal thinkers, whose natural lead function is Sensation or Feeling. Frontals are often seen as: fast moving, fast talking, and intense or driven, Type A's - workaholics. Understanding this internal functioning explains why many Frontals are in a real sense addicted to problem solving. What’s more, Frontals actively choose to do problem solving because of this energy high.”
“Given the above, it is possible to understand the following definitions for Extraversion and Introversion as well as to understand their implications for an individual.”
“Having a naturally low level of arousal which causes the individual to seek higher than normal levels of stimulation in order to "feel alive."
Typical ways in which the extravert seeks stimulation include: trying to influence or control his or her environment; confronting others; engaging in competition; attending crowded parties or events "where the action is".”
“Having a naturally high level of arousal which causes the individual to seek lower than normal levels of stimulation in order to not feel overwhelmed.”
“Over a period of years, this need to not be overwhelmed by external stimulation develops into an internally focused thinking style which may seem withdrawn, meditative, quiet, or even reclusive to more extraverted persons. Typical ways in which the introvert seeks to control the level of stimulation include: spending time reading, reflecting, or otherwise alone; avoiding or being accommodating to others; competing mostly with oneself or self image; going to small parties or out of the way places.”
- Katherine Benziger, Ph.D., Page updated: 11 January 2000, Articles in Jungian Psychology, The Physiology of Type – Part 1, http://www.benziger.org/intro-extra.html
According to the work of Dr. Richard Haier at UC. Irvine as cited by Katherine Benziger, “Moreover, Haier’s research has shown repeatedly that most people have one area which enjoys a much lower level of electrical resistance – using only one one-hundredth the oxygen / energy - when compared with all the other areas of that person’s cortex.” When you consider relative cortical efficiency with the fact that the human brain comprises about 2% of a person’s weight but even at rest it consumes about 20% of the bodies energy you can begin to understand why such factors play a dominant role in our behavior.
“From the above overview we have learned that:”
- “Jung’s four Functions are rooted in four distinct areas of the cortex. Thinking is housed in the Left Frontal Lobe. Intuition is housed in the Right Frontal Lobe. Sensation is housed in the Left Posterior Convexity. Feeling is housed in the Right Posterior Convexity.
- Jung’s assertion that each of us has one Natural Lead Function is the result of a neuro-chemical - physiological fact that each person has one area which is 100 times more efficient than their remaining three areas.
- Jung’s assertion that each person has two natural auxiliaries can be understood to be the natural result of the brain’s structure. Factually speaking, neuronal bridges hardwire a person’s Natural Lead to their auxiliaries, making communication between their lead and auxiliaries easy, even though each actual auxiliary is relatively speaking highly inefficient.
- Jung’s assertion that once a person’s Natural Lead Function has been identified, one can confidently calculate the person’s greatest Natural Weakness, is the result of the simply fact that there are no diagonal bridges in the human brain.
- The difference between the Feeling Function and Emotions can be understood more clearly. The Feeling Function is a cortical capacity to recognize the presence or absence of harmony – between colors, tones, or human beings. By contrast, emotions are a limbic capacity to experience delight, anger, fear, grief.
- Jung’s belief that Falsification of Type was real possibility is understood to be the natural result of anyone developing and using any of their three inefficient, non-preferred Functions more than their highly efficient Natural Lead Function. What’s more, Jung’s assertion that Falsification of Type can be a serious threat to a person’s physical and mental / emotional health has been validated by the work of Dr. Katherine Benziger and Dr. Arlene Taylor, resulting recently in the profound recognition that Falsification of Type leads dependably to a serious results as defined by PASS.”
“Thus, quite simply, the elements of Jung’s Typology related to the existence and relative organization of four specialized functions or ways of "thinking" is explained.”
- Katherine Benziger, Ph.D., Page updated: 11 January 2000, Articles in Jungian Psychology, The Physiology of Type – Part 2, http://www.benziger.org/4function.html
Here are some descriptions of the four functions in each attitude, Sensing, Feeling, iNtuition, and Thinking. Each cognitive function can be expressed in either an Introverted or Extroverted “attitude”. (Se, Si, Fe, Fi, Ne, Ni, Te and Ti). One book I might recommend on the expression of functions is “Personality Type an Owners Manual” by Lenore Thomson.
Markku Jantunen's Definition of the 8 Functions
Ne is perceiving abstract patterns and connections in
response to stimuli (either in the external world or in the
mind. ) Ne generates new information starting from
something existing. Ne focuses on future possibilities.
Ni is the creation of mental imagery independent of outer
stimuli. Ni generates abstract structural images of a given
problem domain that a person can view from different
points of view at will. Ni focuses on the structure of things
from a timeless point of view.
Se is indiscriminant awareness of the physical
environment. Se prefers to indulge in that which exists in
the present moment.
Si is awareness of concrete forms and categories of
sensory perception. Si interprets stimuli in terms of the
past. Si stores and recalls facts, figures and past
Te is structuring one's interactions with the external world
in a systematic fashion, based on logical and impersonal
hierarchies and categories.
Ti is judging the validity of perceptions logically. Ti as a
mental process is a collection of threads of thought taking
concepts or percepts apart or pulling them together based
on rules and criteria.
Fe is adapting one's interactions with the external world to
the moods and feelings of others. Fe is sensitive to events
like changes in people's expressions or other such "soft,"
hard-to-quantify conditions in the environment.
Fi is judging perceptions emotionally, based on weight of
evidence. Fi as a mental process is the flow of
judgements on perceptions personal ideals or feeling of
right and wrong. Fi strives for integrity and consistency in
it's ideals. Fi is higher cognitive refinement personal
emotion. Fi enables one to vividly re-experience past
I stress that the “Feeling” function is poorly understood
(as is iNtuition). This function is used for judging/reasoning. It is not
the same as “emotions”. As Benziger pointed out emotions are a product of the
limbic system. Instead, ‘Felling’ or as I prefer to call it ‘Subjective
Reasoning’ interprets and assigns qualities or values of perceptions based on
subjective criteria. For example, if you are near an electrical power generation
device that emits a large electromagnetic field and you subjectively experienced
(feel) a “tingling” in your stomach, the skin and hair on your arms tingles, a
light headedness in your brain and you attempted to interpret these sensations
and convey them to someone is this “irrational”? Is it an “emotion”? Of course
not, it’s simply difficult to describe to others using objective language. This
function is used to discern variances in perceptions and to change your point of
view. This function is appropriate for use in the area of ethics, musical and
artistic expression as well as fictional literature.
Today most people understand personality types through a personality test developed by Isabel Briggs Myers. Ms. Myers and her mother used Jung’s theory of personality type and over decades working with psychologists, career counselors and others, developed a testing system to identify the personality traits. The test is referred to as the MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) and the organization, which refines, administers and trains people to administer the test, is the Association for Psychological Type at http://www.aptcentral.org/. When these personality trait “preferences” are combined a dominant “personality type” can be identified. There are consequently 16 base personality types. I recommend the following web site for well written descriptions of each type, http://www.personalitypage.com/portraits.html.
I wish to emphasize I believe a distinction between ‘personality’ and cognitive functional preference must be maintained in order to resolve various nature/nurture questions. Personality as usually described is a ‘product’ of cognitive function. But of course ‘environment’ influences the development of cognitive functions.
Here are two tables listing each of the 16 personality types grouped by function/trait. In the first table, next to each type is a percentage of the US population by gender that could be identified as having that personality type as scored by the MBTI. (These percentages are from the MBTI Manuel – A Guide to the Development and Use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Third Edition 1998.) The second table indicates each MBTI personalities’ first four functional preferences in each attitude. While other tables would make it more clear those with a preference for Sensing generally outnumber those with a preference for iNtuition by 3 to 1. With that information in mind, guess which group is more likely to be considered ‘abnormal’?
|ISTJ – F 6.9% M 16.4%||ISFJ – F 19.4% M 8.1%||INFJ – F 1.6% M 1.3%||INTJ – F 0.8% M 3.3%||
|ISTP – F 2.4% M 8.5%||ISFP – F 9.9% M 7.6%||INFP – F 4.6% M 4.1%||INTP – F 1.8% M 4.8%||
|ESTP – F 3.0% M 5.6%||ESFP – F 10.1% M 6.9%||ENFP – F 9.7% M 6.4%||ENTP – F 2.4% M 4.0%||
|ESTJ – F 6.3% M 11.2%||ESFJ – F 16.9% M 7.5%||ENFJ – F 3.3% M 1.6%||ENTJ – F 0.9% M 2.7%||
|Si Te Fi Ne (ISTJ)||Si Fe Ti Ne (ISFJ)||Ni Fe Ti Se (INFJ)||Ni Te Fi Se (INTJ)||
|Ti Se Ni Fe (ISTP)||Fi Se Ni Te (ISFP)||Fi Ne Si Te (INFP)||Ti Ne Si Fe (INTP)||
|Se Ti Fe Ni (ESTP)||Se Fi Te Ni (ESFP)||Ne Fi Te Si (ENFP)||Ne Ti Fe Si (ENTP)||
|Te Si Ne Fi (ESTJ)||Fe Si Ne Ti (ESFJ)||Fe Ni Se Ti (ENFJ)||Te Ni Se Fi (ENTJ)||
- Glen Hendler, August 2001, Functional Notation, http://www.timeenoughforlove.org/Notation.htm
Making a distinction between the two forms of notation is significant for those who research personality theory. The distinction is important because a person’s personality develops over time. The MBTI system attempts to discern a person’s dominant personality type through preferred ‘behaviors’. In societies with large populations and advanced organizations there tends to be a high degree of individual specialization. As a result people tend to over develop their first two naturally preferred functions and the remaining are too often, very poorly developed. Identifying all four of an individual’s functions by preference and attitude would allow them to become consciously aware of their natural preferences and weaknesses. This is ‘very’ important because most of our thinking (cognitive processing) is done at an ‘unconscious’ level.
So, if one considers the defining attributes of the cognitive functions in each attitude, the neuro-physiological basis for differentiation, the variability in an individual’s RAS, the various levels of utilization and development of each function which forms the individuals working cognitive matrix, and the evidence of unexplained accelerating IQ then one can see the patterns that emerge in the behaviors for each of the ‘disorders’ I identified. I think most of the subjects diagnosed with Asperger Disorder (Syndrome) would be found to have a 100% more efficient Introverted Thinking (Ti) function and consequently an extremely underdeveloped Feeling (subjective reasoning) function. On the flip-side I think many of those diagnosed with Social Anxiety Disorder are likely to be found to be Introverted Feeling (Fi) dominant and thus a poorly developed objective Thinking (objective reasoning) function. Additional support for this theory can be found in the success of Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CPT).
The fact that Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADD/ADHD entails a variety of qualifying behaviors is evidence itself that those who define the ‘disorder’ really don’t know what they are dealing with. They have drugs that placate ‘unruly’ children so they have tried to discern common behavioral patterns. The pattern I see between the type 1 “inattentive” children and the type 2 “hyperactive” children lead me to believe that the differences are dominated by extroverted perceiving differences. That is, I think the type 1 children are most likely to be Ne dominant and the type two kids Se dominant. Evidence of this can be found if the children are evaluated on a Jungian basis as evidenced by the “Born to Explore” argument that many of these children excel in similar areas.
One of the first things I’ve discovered from my own research is that peering eye movement corresponds positionally to the location of the cognitive functions. That is, when someone consciously retrieves a memory, they may for different lengths of time change their eye position in an attempt to “peer” into their mind. That is for Thinking they would peer upper left, for iNtuition they would look upper right, Sensing lower left and Feeling lower right. Here is what that would look like if you were watching someone else’s eyes.
Sounds dubious? To prove this to yourself try the
following, comfortably look up and diagonally to your right and try to describe
a place that is very familiar to you like your work office or your bedroom,
somewhere where you are not at the present time (sensing details i.e. just
physical facts). You will probably not be able to describe more than one or two
features comfortably. Now move your eyes lower left and do the same thing. You
should find the thoughts flow easily. Now do the opposite, look lower left and
describe your ‘future’ plans for your career or a relationship. You should find
it nearly impossible. Now look upper right and try again.
I have also been studying computing for more than twenty years and have held several technical computer related jobs for more than twelve years. From my research I’ve reasoned that many advanced concepts and constructs are actually subconscious projections of our own thought processes and brain structure. I contend these technologies include but are not limited to, hyperlinks, parallel processing, abstraction layers, basic input/output systems, preemptive, multi-tasking, multi-threaded operations, relational databases, neural networks and of course microprocessors.
I’ve done a bit of research and I believe I’m the first to realize that the high-level CPU functions in the Intel Pentium processor as seen here directly correspond with the human cognitive functions. That is, Sensing = Data, Feeling = Fluidic calculations, Intuition = Prediction and Fetch, and Thinking = Code and Logic. These functions are not only in the same relative positions to each other, it’s also likely that the relative location of the functions is significant. That is, the Introverted functions are closer to the center and the Extroverted functions are further from the center. You can go to the following page of web site where I attempt to equate each of the CPU functions with each cognitive function in each attitude, the ‘four’ language structures and even the RAS represented as the ‘Clock Driver’, http://www.timeenoughforlove.org/CPU.htm
- Image is Intel microprocessor found at Kids Online, Microprocessor, http://www.kids-online.net/learn/clickjr/details/cpu.html
I attribute the internal (subconscious) perception and development of these technologies primarily to the INTJ personality type. I rest this hypothesis on many factors, but most significant among them are the attributes of the INTJ’s Ni-Te-Fi-Se functional matrix , surveys that indicate such jobs are occupied by a high percentage of INTJs and my own professional experience. It’s also important to note that given time, the development of such technology is an evolutionary eventuality. Without a conscious understanding of one’s own mind the subconscious will dominate thought and express itself.
I also contend the natural and underdeveloped cognitive matrix of most astronomers, particularly those who excel mathematically is one of the principal reasons why they continually ignored problems like the redshift observations that placed Earth at the center of the Universe. I don’t want to go into a lengthy explanation but much of it concerns the reliance on a highly developed and efficient objective reasoning (Thinking) function and the naturally inferior subjective reasoning (feeling) function that hindered their ability to alter their perspective. Fortunately once we become consciously aware of our shortcomings we can alter our thinking and see the universe in new ways.
“We may, appear to be watching the galaxies recede from us and believe ourselves to be stationary, however this is simply our relative view of the universe. For example, a galaxy receding from us at a rate of "x" km/sec would see our galaxy relative to itself moving away also at the same speed of "x" km/sec. Some galaxies do not recede from each other, as their gravitation holds them together as a whole. These groups of galaxies are called "clusters".”
“There is a lot unknown about our expanding universe but there is more and more being discovered every day. Soon we might just know for fact the true story of the universe. “
- Matthew Dolan, © Marc Delehanty 2001, Cosmology Section - Big Bang, http://www.astronomytoday.com/cosmology/bigbang.html